Christian Churches of God

No. F044iv






Commentary on Acts

Part 4

(Edition 1.0 20211014-20211014)

Commentary on Chapters 14-18.


Christian Churches of God

PO Box 369,  WODEN  ACT 2606,  AUSTRALIA






(Copyright © 2021 Wade Cox)


This paper may be freely copied and distributed provided it is copied in total with no alterations or deletions. The publisher’s name and address and the copyright notice must be included.  No charge may be levied on recipients of distributed copies.  Brief quotations may be embodied in critical articles and reviews without breaching copyright.


This paper is available from the World Wide Web page: and



Commentary on Acts Part 4


Intent of the Chapters

Chapter 14

Verses 1-7: Paul and Barnabas go to Iconium and then return. This is the first missionary journey (17:5, 13). Lystra was a Roman colony now modern Hatun-Serai, 25 miles SW of Konya. (v. 7) Derbe is probably Kerti, a mound near Beydili.


Verses 8-18: Paul and Barnabas at Lystra

Healing of a man crippled from birth.

The lesson is to Worship God.

According to an ancient myth Zeus and Hermes visited Baucis and Philemon in the likeness of men and rewarded them for their hospitality. Paul, as chief speaker, was hailed as the messenger of the gods (cf. Gal. 4:14) (not the chief god).

Paul like Peter (10:26) rejected worship of himself.


Verses 19-23: Paul stoned at Lystra (cf. 2Cor.11: 25). Paul and Barnabas go to Derbe, then back to Lystra and on to Iconium and Antioch, preaching, encouraging and appointing elders. In Acts, Paul’s Churches are ruled by elders (cf. 20:17). Aside from verse 23 the word is only used in Paul’s letters 1Timothy and Titus.


Verses 24-28: Further travels of Paul and Barnabas to Pisida, Pamphylia, Perga to Attalia and from Attalia they sailed to Antioch where they were preaching to the gentiles.


Chapter 15

The Jerusalem Conference (P069)

“As most of us know, the text in Acts 15 deals with the debate between Peter and the other disciples and Elders in the Church regarding circumcision and the purification rituals that the Pharisees had introduced. It was made obvious from that conference that the Gentiles (Nations) coming into the Church had some serious problems regarding the adult males being circumcised. This was exacerbated by the fact that many were slaves. A person was not allowed to interfere with (hence circumcise) another man’s slave with impunity. The text in Acts 15 outlines the problems and the resolution of the matter.


The correct doctrinal position as it was carried out in the Church has been published in the paper Purification and Circumcision (No. 251).


The problem arose because some of the people in Judea (perhaps some of the priests mentioned in Acts 6:7) came down to the churches in Asia Minor and remonstrated with the people, demanding that they be circumcised or they could not be saved. Paul and Barnabas disputed with them, and afterwards they and a party went to Jerusalem to argue this matter with the Apostles and Elders. They came via the coast road as far as Caesarea, travelling through Phoenicia and Samaria, and proclaimed the extension of salvation to the Gentiles; and the people rejoiced.


There were members of the sects of the Pharisees who were converted, and these rose up in Jerusalem and demanded that the Gentiles be circumcised and keep the Law of Moses. The Church considered this matter and Peter rose and said:


“Men and brothers, know how that a good while ago God made choice among us that the Gentiles by my mouth should hear the word of the gospel and believe. And God, who knows the hearts, bore them witness and gave them the Holy Spirit as He did to us, and put no difference between us and them purifying their hearts by faith (cf. Acts 11). Therefore why do you tempt God by putting a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved even as they” (Acts 15:7-11).


The brethren then listened in silence as Barnabas and Paul gave an account of the miracles God had wrought among the Gentiles through them.


James (Yakob, the Lord’s brother; cf. Acts 12:17 and fn. to The Companion Bible; and Gal. 1:19) then stood up and said: “Men and brethren listen to me”. He then used Peter’s real name when he said: “Simeon [i.e. Simon] has declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles to take out a people for His name; and to this agree the words of the prophets, for it is written: after this I will return again and build again the Tabernacle of David [i.e. the Tent of David as a lowly condition], which is fallen down and I will build again the ruins [things overturned, cf. Rom. 11:3] thereof, and I will set it up, that the residue [kataloipos, the faithful remnant] of men might seek after the Lord and all the Gentiles upon whom my name is called” (taking the second place; cf. Zech. 8:23 and see also Deut. 28:10; Jer. 14:9; Jas. 2:7).


James did a number of things here. He showed that he was the senior Apostle, or chairman of the conference, and that Peter was not the senior Apostle. Paul also showed here that he was part of and subject to the direction of the Council of Apostles and Elders of the Church that were under the chairmanship of James – a fact which he also acknowledged, as did Peter. James also shows that the Temple was to be destroyed, as this conference took place in Jerusalem when the Temple still stood.


The Faith and salvation were thus intended to be extended to the Gentiles, who would also compose the Tabernacle of David. That edifice preceded the Temple of Solomon and obviously expanded beyond the physical structure. James showed here that the prophecy applied to all nations, and that the people to whom the salvation of God extended would be the faithful remnant. Thus, there must be a remnant of mankind faithful through the tribulation. But faithful to what, one might ask?


James then continued with what has been turned into the most baffling of pronouncements. He said:

“Known unto God are all His works from the beginning of the age (aeon). Therefore my sentence is (I judge or decide): that we do not trouble them from among the Gentiles that are turned to God. But that we write unto them that they abstain from pollutions of idols, and from fornication, and from things strangled and from blood. For Moses of old time had in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath day” (Acts 15:18-21).


Then the Apostles and Elders and the whole Church sent out Judas, Barsabas and Silas – chief men of the Church with Paul and Barnabas – with letters written by them to the churches in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia.


They said: “Forasmuch as we have heard that certain men went out from us troubling you with words unsettling you to whom we gave no such commandment. It seemed good to us who were assembled with one accord to send chosen representatives to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, men who have hazarded their lives for the sake of our Lord Jesus Christ. We have sent therefore Judas and Silas who will tell you the same things by mouth” (Acts 15:22-27). 


This text has in it a forgery in the KJV from the Textus Receptus, in which the words, “saying, you must be circumcised, and keep the law” have been added after the emphatic you and before to whom we gave no such commandment. This wording is not present in the ancient texts and it was inserted into the Receptus during the Reformation. It was inserted into the Aramaic text of the Peshitta some centuries after the Greek and Latin texts were written. From there it was inserted into the Receptus. The Peshitta was compiled in the fifth century. It is not known if this inclusion was in the original or inserted later. It occurs nowhere else in any other text. However, these inclusions reflect the later Gnostic Antinomianism by this insertion. It has no basis in fact. This text is used to justify the grace-law argument, saying that the Law is done away and that the only limitations on the Gentiles – and hence also the Church in its entirety, given the failure to identify the nations of Israel are those listed here in this text (see the paper The Relationship Between Salvation by Grace and the Law (No. 082)).


The text then continues in Acts 15:28-29:

“For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit and to us to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things: that you abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication. If you keep yourselves from these you shall do well.”


They went back to Antioch and delivered the message there first. Being prophets, Judas and Silas exhorted the brethren and remained there for some time strengthening the brethren.


Now if this were a comprehensive synopsis of the requirements of the Faith, then we are rudderless indeed. Why would we need a Bible, and all the subsequent epistles of the Church, to deal with matters that arose in the keeping of Sabbaths, New Moons and Feasts if they were cast aside for the Gentile Churches of God?


This list, if taken on its supposed intent of restricting the Law of the Pentateuch given to Moses to these few categories, does away with the Ten Commandments. Indeed, that is precisely what the false Christians claim it does mean!


John’s entire treatise on love and the transgression of the Law is thereby rendered meaningless. So also James’ epistle is meaningless and contradictory to this his own ruling. Paul’s entire series of treatises are rendered nonsense and so are Peter’s. The texts in Hebrews are also made nonsense, unless it is admitted that the churches of the Hebrews are subject to an entirely different Law and sequence than are the Gentiles. The Gospels, and Christ’s words and actions, are placed in total opposition to what is said here. Christ’s teachings are cut to the ground with this view. God is made capricious and is blasphemed.


If this interpretation that the Law is reduced to these categories is correct, then we are able to abuse God, hold any view of theology we wish, adopt any calendar we thought suited us (or keep no days at all), abuse our parents, murder or kill by euthanasia or abortion, lie, break agreements with impunity, cheat, rob, covet and eat any filthy thing. We can take as many concubines as we wish and as many wives as we wish. There are no prohibited relationships and incest is permitted. We can do what even the Gentiles would regard as scandalous. Our societies are then free to do what they do now and introduce relative morality.


The very condemnation of Paul in 1Corinthians 5:5, where a man was living with his father’s wife, would be meaningless. It would be a valid marriage after the fact. The interpretation of Acts 15 on these lines would make Christianity a laughing stock among the nations, and would have seen its death knell within a few months after such an interpretation. No reasonable person would have ever bothered with Christianity. It would have been an amoral cult, and every state would have had an obligation to restrict it.


This is the view that antinomians would have us adopt; but it is a false teaching or interpretation. No church of the Reformation ever adopted such an interpretation. The views of the Protestant churches are all covered in the paper Distinction in the Law (No. 096). The distinction is between the sacrificial law and the Laws of God as expressed from the Commandments.


The issue here was in the manner of dealing with food, and the introduced legislation of the Pharisees regarding handlings and purifications, which the Gentiles could never keep because of their environment. The slaves were held in marriage and they were unequally yoked in many cases. Concubinage was endemic. That is what was meant here, in a society that was vastly different to our own.


James says to be doers of the word and not hearers, calling the Law the perfect law of liberty (Jas. 1:25). He says in James 2:8-14:

"If you really fulfil the Royal law according to the Scripture, ‘You shall love your neighbour as yourself’ you do well. But if you show partiality you commit sin, and are convicted by the law as transgressors. For whoever keeps the whole law but fails in one point has become guilty of all of it. For he who said: ‘Do not commit adultery’ also said: ‘Do not kill.’ If you do not commit adultery but do kill, you have become a transgressor of the law. So speak and so act as those who are to be judged under the law of liberty. For judgment is without mercy to one who has shown no mercy; yet mercy triumphs over judgment. What does it profit, my brethren, if a man says he has faith but has no works? Can his faith save him?


James is saying the Law of God must be tempered with mercy in judgment. Why would one need mercy if the Law was done away? One cannot be punished in the absence of law.


James is therefore saying something entirely different in Acts 15 than what is being portrayed by the antinomians or gnostics of today, who call themselves Christians but lie. They go from door to door trying to persuade the weak, and when pressed regarding the Sabbath and the Ten Commandments, tell us this is so. Indeed, the major sects who claim this error now combine for survival because their illogic and hypocrisy are manifest in the light. Test the spirits as we are commanded.


James is not removing the Law of God in this judgment at the Jerusalem conference recorded in Acts 15. There is no authority for that, and, indeed, he would be disqualified from the Faith if he were to do so. This man James was the son of Joseph and Mariam, the parents of Christ, and he was Christ’s brother. He understood what Christ meant and that is why this text is misused and forged. The lie of the Trinitarians regarding the primacy of Peter is exposed also in this text.


If people in the Church of God tell us that the Law of God is done away, we know thereby they are not of us but as wolves sent in among us to destroy us. Such was the strategy of Balaam, son of Beor, to lead Israel to sin (see the paper The Doctrine of Balaam and Balaam's Prophecy (No. 204)). If they do not speak according to the Law and the Testimony, there is no light in them (Isa. 8:20).


The later provisions for the release of the slaves under Christian masters was made in accordance with the law of the Pentateuch, as had happened, but which had also been rescinded, as recorded by Jeremiah (cf. Jer. 34:8-17).


Peter says that Christ bore our sins in his body on the tree (1Pet. 2:24). John tells us that “sin is transgression of the law” (1Jn. 3:4). No one born of God commits sin for God’s nature abides in him and he cannot sin, for he is born of God. By this it may be seen who are the children of God and who are the children of the Devil. Whoever does not do righteousness is not of God, nor he who does not love his brother (1Jn. 3:9-10). Thus, how can we be guilty of transgression of the Law of God and then be told that we are at liberty from the Law, which required us to be baptised into the Body of Christ? Then we are allegedly told it need not be kept anyway. How can the penalty be other than capricious if such were the case? There is no logic to this thinking and it makes the Church out to be feeble minded. 


The Churches of God have those among them who utter these puerile sentiments. They are as ones who come in among us planting tares, and seeking to subvert the Churches of God by this false teaching. By this we know those who do not speak in the Holy Spirit. The elect are those who keep the Commandments of God and the Testimony or Faith of Jesus Christ (Rev. 12:17; 14:12). 


Recently, one of the Churches of God, after declaring itself Binitarian a little while ago, stated that it is all right to worship on Sundays, or any day they add. They say the keeping of the Sabbath does not come directly from the requirements of the Law, but more from the example of Christ and the Apostles. Thus, one can refrain from labour on the Sabbath and go to services on Sunday. So also did the false teachers destroy the Worldwide Church of God. However, the error comes with the attack on the unity of God first. The argument regarding the Sabbath within the Law is put thus:

Since God commanded no assembly or worship in observing Sabbath, how can we correct one who rests the seventh day (according to Ex. 20:8-11) and also worships at other times? Our pattern of Sabbath worship comes more from the example of Christ (see Luke 4:16) than from the law (Bible Advocate, September 2004, p. 17).


Well, does it come from the Law or does it not? Did Christ obey the Law or did he not obey the Law? He kept the Sabbaths, New Moons and Holy Days and the Feasts commanded by God. So, if we are guided by Christ’s example we should do what he and the Apostles did and keep the complete Calendar of God and not just the Sabbath.  


It is written: “Remember the Sabbath Day to keep it holy”. Not just to rest but to keep it holy.


The Commandments in Deuteronomy 5:12-14 are clearer. There we are commanded:

Keep the Sabbath day to sanctify it as the Lord your God has commanded you. Six days shall you labour and do all thy work but the Seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God, in it you shall not do any work, you nor your son nor your daughter nor your manservant nor your maidservant, nor your ox nor your ass nor any of your cattle nor the stranger that is within your gates, so that your manservant and your maidservant may rest as well as you.


The Hebrew accent zarha is used to show that the Commandment is two-fold, with labour being required for the six days and the Sabbath to be sanctified. It is not just to be rested, but sanctified. How, one may ask, is one to keep the Sabbath correctly without keeping it holy or sanctified? How can we keep it holy but in worship or service of the living God?


It is written: You shall keep my Sabbaths and reverence my sanctuary; I am the Lord (Lev. 19:30; 26:2). So, we reverence the Sanctuary of God.


We must therefore go before God on each Sabbath. As we are the Temple of God, we worship God and establish His Temple in holiness each Sabbath. Thus, worship is inseparable from the Sabbaths of the Lord – all of them – and is enshrined directly in the Law. We are commanded to not forsake our assembling together for this purpose. The Acts show that James and the Apostles followed all these practices in the Church – on Sabbaths, New Moons and Holy Days and throughout all the Feasts of God.


Clear false teachers from us and restore the Churches of God to the Faith. If it is too late and they are in the majority then leave them. It is better to be a voice crying in the wilderness. “You shall not follow after a multitude to do evil, neither shall you speak in a cause to decline after many to wrest judgment” (Ex. 23:2). Because the majority of people who claim to be followers of Christ wrest judgment of the Law by false statements, that does not excuse us for accepting it in the Churches of God.


It is written: “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your mind [or understanding]. This is the great and first commandment. And a second is like it, you shall love your neighbour as yourself and on these two commandments hang [or depend] all the law and the prophets” (Mat. 22:37-40).


The Law and the prophets were teachers to bring us to God through Christ. We are not removed from the Law but rather placed in a position to live within it as the perfect law of liberty, and go beyond it in grace and mercy. We are freed from sacrifice through the sacrifice of Christ. The whole body of sacrificial law was fulfilled in Christ. The Law of God was not removed, and not one jot or tittle will pass from it until all is accomplished and Heaven and Earth pass away (Mat. 5:18).”


After the conference Paul and Barnabas then remained in Antioch and the prophets Judas and Silas exhorted the brethren at Antioch and after a time they were sent back in peace to their brethren who had sent them. Paul and Barnabas remained preaching there with many others.


After some days Paul and Barnabas decided to revisit the Villages they had gone to on this mission but Paul and Barnabas had a dispute re the wisdom of taking John Mark with them, as he had withdrawn from them at Pamphylia. So Barnabas took John Mark with him and withdrew from Paul sailing to Cyprus.  Paul chose Silas and commended by the brethren to the grace of the Lord went through Syria and Cilicia strengthening the churches there (vv. 36-41).   


Chapter 16

Paul then went to Derbe and Lystra and Timothy the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer,   joined Paul and Silas. Timothy’s father was a Greek. Paul circumcised him because of the Jews there who knew his father was a Greek. They delivered there the decisions of the Jerusalem Conference at Acts 15 and the membership increased daily.


Asia Minor to Troas

The apostles were not permitted by the Holy Spirit to preach the word in Asia and when they came opposite Mysia (v. 7) and attempted to go into Bithynia the Spirit of Jesus did not permit them to enter and so passing by Mysia they went down to Troas. The region was probably the country NW of Iconium where both Phrygians and Galatians lived. The Roman province of Asia included western Phrygia.  The region opposite Mysia was the region east of Troas was near Nacoleia (modern Seyitgazi) and Bithynia was north of there.


Paul and Silas in Philippi

Paul is considered to have entered Europe for the first time by many scholars. They went from Troas to Samothrace, and Neapolis and then Philippi. Philippi was the leading city but not the capital of Macedonia which was a Roman province in Europe including Philippi, Thessalonica and Beroea. Often Veterans were given lands in their retirement at these settlements such as Philippi.


By the river there they met a woman Lydia of Thyatira on the Sabbath with other women who came together to hear them. She and her household were baptised and invited the apostles to come to her house and stay.


From verses 16-24 we see that as they approached the place of prayer the apostles encountered a slave girl possessed by a demon with a spirit of divination. She repeated their identification as the men of God proclaiming the way of salvation for many days and so annoyed Paul that he cast the demon from the girl and it came out that hour.


The girl’s owners having lost income from the girl’s loss of divination then seized the apostles and dragged them before the rulers in the market place and charged them before the magistrates and accused them of being Jews advocating customs not lawful for them to practice (v. 21). The crowd joined in attacking them. The magistrates tore the garments from them and ordered them beaten with rods. After they received many blows they were ordered thrown in prison, charging the jailer to keep them safely. And he then placed them in the inner prison with their feet fastened in stocks (vv. 22-24).


The Philippian Jailer converted

About midnight Paul and Silas were praying and singing hymns to God and the prisoners were listening to them, and suddenly there was a great earthquake so that the foundations of the prison were shaken and the doors were opened and everyone’s fetters were unfastened (vv. 25-26).


When the jailer woke and saw that the doors were all open he drew his sword and was about to kill himself thinking the prisoners had escaped (v. 27). But Paul cried with a loud voice saying do not harm yourself for we are all here. And the jailer called for lights and rushed in trembling and fell down before Paul and Silas, and then brought them out and said “men what must I do to be saved” and they said: “Believe in the Lord Jesus and you will be saved and your household.”


They then spoke the word of the Lord to him and to all that were in his house. He then took them and washed their wounds and he was baptised at once with all his family (vv. 28-33).


He then brought them up into his house and set food before them and rejoiced with all his household that he had believed in God.


Release from prison

The next day the magistrates sent the police (or lictors who bore rods symbolised by bundles of sticks as fascia bound, often with an axe) to release them saying let these men go.  The jailer reported these words to them and said the magistrates have sent to let you go, and said: “so therefore come out and go in peace” (vv. 35-36).


Paul refused and said they have beaten us publicly, uncondemned men who are Roman Citizens (who were protected against scourging) and have thrown us into prison and do they now cast us out secretly. No let them come themselves and let them take us out. The police reported these words to the magistrates and they were afraid when they heard they were Roman Citizens and so they came and apologised and took them out and asked them to leave the city. So they went out of the prison and visited Lydia and when they had seen the brethren they exhorted them and departed (vv. 37-40). This was a significant witness there.


Chapter 17

Paul and Silas in Thessalonica

Paul passed through Amphipopolis and Apollonia which were on the Via Egnatia between Philippi and Thessalonica capital of the province. There was located there a synagogue of the Jews (v. 1).


Paul went into the synagogue for three weeks (Sabbaths) and argued with them from the Scriptures that it was necessary for Jesus to suffer and to rise from the dead and that this Jesus he explained to them was the Christ (vv. 2-3). Some of them were persuaded and joined the Apostles as did a great many of the devout Greeks and not a few of the leading women (vv. 4-5).  However, many of the Jews were jealous and gathered a part of the rabble into a crowd and set the city in an uproar. They attacked the house of Jason and they dragged Jason and some of the brethren before the city authorities (politarch is a Macedonian title) (vv. 6-7). They accused the brethren of serving another king other than Caesar and that Jason had received them and they are acting against the decrees of Caesar. The authorities were disturbed by this and so took security from Jason and let them go (vv. 8-9).  


Paul and Silas in Beroea

The brethren then immediately sent Paul and Silas away to Beroea. The Jews there were more noble than those at Thessalonica, receiving the word with all eagerness and searching the Scriptures daily to prove these things were so (v. 11). Many of them believed and not a few Greek women of high standing as well as men (v. 12).  When the Jews at Thessalonica heard Paul was at Beroea they came there also and stirred up the crowd against him.  The brethren then immediately sent Paul off on the sea (to Athens) but Silas and Timothy remained there. Paul sent those who accompanied him to Athens back with a command for Silas and Timothy to join him there (vv. 13-15).


Paul in Athens (vv. 17-34)

Paul was disturbed by the fact that Athens was full of idols.  He argued in the synagogue and in the market place (Agora) with the Jews and the devout and all who chanced to be there (vv. 16-17). He met Epicurean and Stoic philosophers there who were intrigued by his teaching of Jesus and the Resurrection (Anastasis) which they mistook for a foreign deity. The term babble is actually cock-sparrow which refers to people who pick up scraps of learning in the market place; and they took hold of him and took him to the Areopagus, which is the council located on the Hill itself (vv. 18-19).


The Athenians and the foreigners there were famous for their curiosity concerning foreign teachings and things new (v. 21).


Paul addresses the Areopagus

Here he presents Stoic and Jewish arguments.

He refers to their religiosity and also their reference to the unknown god. He then proclaimed this unknown God to be the creator God and creator of man and nations and the judge of men was to be the man he raised from the dead.


Verse 28 - 2probably from Epimenides of Crete.

3From Aratus’s poem ‘Phainomena’


When the Athenians and those listening heard of the Resurrection of the dead some mocked him but others believed and joined him, among them Dionysius the Areopagite (member of the council of the Aeriopagus) and a woman named Damaris and other with them (vv. 32-33).


Chapter 18

Paul in Corinth

(cf. 1Cor.  Chs. 1-4 for Paul’s own account)

Paul went from Athens to Corinth. He found a Jew there, a native of Pontus, named Aquila who had come from Rome with his wife Priscilla (Prisca of 1Cor. 16:19) after Claudius banished the Jews there probably in 49 CE (vv. 1-2).  Aquila was a tentmaker (The Greek word usually means leatherworkers) and so Paul also a tentmaker stayed with them (v. 3). Paul argued in the synagogues each Sabbath and persuaded many Jews and Greeks (v. 4). When Silas and Timothy arrived Paul was occupied with preaching to the Jews that the Messiah was indeed the Christ. They ridiculed him for that assertion.  He then shook out his garments and said “your blood be upon your own heads!” (in accordance with the prophecy of Ezekiel 33:2-9) (v. 5).


He then resolved to go to the Gentiles and ignore the Jews (which he then allowed to fall to Peter from Antioch and Parthia) (v. 6). He left there and went to the house of Titius Justus, a worshipper of God whose house was next door to the synagogue. Crispus the ruler of the synagogue believed in the Lord and he with all his house believed and were baptised along with many of the Corinthians. Crispus was thus the first of the few Corinthians to be baptised by Paul (1Cor. 1:14) (vv. 7-8).


Paul’s Vision at Corinth

Christ appeared in a vision to Paul at Corinth and encouraged him to speak. He told him he was with him and not to be afraid for Christ had many in the city that were with him and no man would attack or harm Paul (vv. 9-10). Thus Paul stayed for a year and six months there.


When Gallio (brother of the philosopher Seneca) was made proconsul of Acha’ia (and Asia) (ca. 51 CE) the Jews made a united attack against Paul and brought him before the tribunal. Saying this man is persuading men to worship God contrary to the law. Gallio however refused to become involved in matters of Jewish religious disputes as to their law rather than Roman Law and as it was not involving wrongdoing or vicious crime, he refused to be involved and judge them and told them to sort it out and he drove them from the tribunal (vv. 12-16). And they all seized Sosthenes the ruler of the synagogue (Crispus was now a member of the congregation of the church there). They beat Sosthenes before the Tribunal (cf. also 1Cor. 1:1) but Gallio paid no attention to this fact (v. 17).


End of the Second Missionary Journey and Beginning of the Third

Paul stayed there many days after this event and then sailed with Aquila and Priscilla for Syria. (v.18). At Cenchae he cut his hair because he was under a vow.  This was the vow of a Nazarite as that is the law when the vows of the Nazarite are completed. They came to Ephesus and he left the pair there; but he himself went into the synagogue and argued with the Jews, despite his resolution at Corinth (v. 19). They asked him to stay for a longer period but he declined and said he would return to them if God wills and then departed Ephesus. He landed at Caesaria, where he greeted the Church and then went down to Antioch. He spent some time there and then went from place to place throughout Galatia and Phrygia strengthening all the disciples. This is held to be the end of the Second Missionary Journey and the beginning of the Third.


Apollos and John’s Baptism.

Apollos was a native of Alexandria and a Jew. He was well grounded and eloquent and taught correctly concerning the Christ but he was a disciple of John the Baptist and thus he and John’s disciples had not received the Holy Spirit.


He powerfully refuted the Jews and when Aquila and Priscilla heard him they took him aside and explained to him more fully the doctrines of the church and then commended him to the church by writing to the disciples to receive him and encourage him.


In Chapter 19 (below) Apollos and his comrades had Paul explain that it was necessary to have hands laid on for the Holy Spirit after baptism in order to enter the church and the Kingdom of God.


ACTS Chapters 14-18 (RSV)


Chapter 14

1Now at Ico'nium they entered together into the Jewish synagogue, and so spoke that a great company believed, both of Jews and of Greeks. 2But the unbelieving Jews stirred up the Gentiles and poisoned their minds against the brethren. 3So they remained for a long time, speaking boldly for the Lord, who bore witness to the word of his grace, granting signs and wonders to be done by their hands. 4But the people of the city were divided; some sided with the Jews, and some with the apostles. 5When an attempt was made by both Gentiles and Jews, with their rulers, to molest them and to stone them, 6they learned of it and fled to Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycao'nia, and to the surrounding country; 7and there they preached the gospel. 8Now at Lystra there was a man sitting, who could not use his feet; he was a cripple from birth, who had never walked. 9He listened to Paul speaking; and Paul, looking intently at him and seeing that he had faith to be made well, 10said in a loud voice, "Stand upright on your feet." And he sprang up and walked. 11And when the crowds saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voices, saying in Lycao'nian, "The gods have come down to us in the likeness of men!" 12Barnabas they called Zeus, and Paul, because he was the chief speaker, they called Hermes. 13And the priest of Zeus, whose temple was in front of the city, brought oxen and garlands to the gates and wanted to offer sacrifice with the people. 14But when the apostles Barnabas and Paul heard of it, they tore their garments and rushed out among the multitude, crying, 15"Men, why are you doing this? We also are men, of like nature with you, and bring you good news, that you should turn from these vain things to a living God who made the heaven and the earth and the sea and all that is in them. 16In past generations he allowed all the nations to walk in their own ways; 17yet he did not leave himself without witness, for he did good and gave you from heaven rains and fruitful seasons, satisfying your hearts with food and gladness." 18With these words they scarcely restrained the people from offering sacrifice to them. 19But Jews came there from Antioch and Ico'nium; and having persuaded the people, they stoned Paul and dragged him out of the city, supposing that he was dead. 20But when the disciples gathered about him, he rose up and entered the city; and on the next day he went on with Barnabas to Derbe. 21When they had preached the gospel to that city and had made many disciples, they returned to Lystra and to Ico'nium and to Antioch, 22strengthening the souls of the disciples, exhorting them to continue in the faith, and saying that through many tribulations we must enter the kingdom of God. 23And when they had appointed elders for them in every church, with prayer and fasting they committed them to the Lord in whom they believed. 24Then they passed through Pisid'ia, and came to Pamphyl'ia. 25And when they had spoken the word in Perga, they went down to Attali'a; 26and from there they sailed to Antioch, where they had been commended to the grace of God for the work which they had fulfilled. 27And when they arrived, they gathered the church together and declared all that God had done with them, and how he had opened a door of faith to the Gentiles. 28And they remained no little time with the disciples.


Chapter 15

1But some men came down from Judea and were teaching the brethren, "Unless you are circumcised according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved." 2And when Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and debate with them, Paul and Barnabas and some of the others were appointed to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and the elders about this question. 3So, being sent on their way by the church, they passed through both Phoeni'cia and Sama'ria, reporting the conversion of the Gentiles, and they gave great joy to all the brethren. 4When they came to Jerusalem, they were welcomed by the church and the apostles and the elders, and they declared all that God had done with them. 5But some believers who belonged to the party of the Pharisees rose up, and said, "It is necessary to circumcise them, and to charge them to keep the law of Moses." 6The apostles and the elders were gathered together to consider this matter. 7And after there had been much debate, Peter rose and said to them, "Brethren, you know that in the early days God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel and believe. 8And God who knows the heart bore witness to them, giving them the Holy Spirit just as he did to us; 9and he made no distinction between us and them, but cleansed their hearts by faith. 10Now therefore why do you make trial of God by putting a yoke upon the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we have been able to bear? 11But we believe that we shall be saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they will." 12And all the assembly kept silence; and they listened to Barnabas and Paul as they related what signs and wonders God had done through them among the Gentiles. 13After they finished speaking, James replied, "Brethren, listen to me. 14Simeon has related how God first visited the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15And with this the words of the prophets agree, as it is written, 16'After this I will return, and I will rebuild the dwelling of David, which has fallen; I will rebuild its ruins, and I will set it up, 17that the rest of men may seek the Lord, and all the Gentiles who are called by my name, 18says the Lord, who has made these things known from of old.' 19Therefore my judgment is that we should not trouble those of the Gentiles who turn to God, 20but should write to them to abstain from the pollutions of idols and from unchastity and from what is strangled and from blood. 21For from early generations Moses has had in every city those who preach him, for he is read every sabbath in the synagogues." 22Then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole church, to choose men from among them and send them to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas. They sent Judas called Barsab'bas, and Silas, leading men among the brethren, 23with the following letter: "The brethren, both the apostles and the elders, to the brethren who are of the Gentiles in Antioch and Syria and Cili'cia, greeting. 24Since we have heard that some persons from us have troubled you with words, unsettling your minds, although we gave them no instructions, 25it has seemed good to us, having come to one accord, to choose men and send them to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul,  26men who have risked their lives for the sake of our Lord Jesus Christ. 27We have therefore sent Judas and Silas, who themselves will tell you the same things by word of mouth. 28For it has seemed good to the Holy Spirit and to us to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things: 29that you abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols and from blood and from what is strangled and from unchastity. If you keep yourselves from these, you will do well. Farewell." 30So when they were sent off, they went down to Antioch; and having gathered the congregation together, they delivered the letter. 31And when they read it, they rejoiced at the exhortation. 32And Judas and Silas, who were themselves prophets, exhorted the brethren with many words and strengthened them. 33And after they had spent some time, they were sent off in peace by the brethren to those who had sent them. 34* [No text] 35But Paul and Barnabas remained in Antioch, teaching and preaching the word of the Lord, with many others also. 36And after some days Paul said to Barnabas, "Come, let us return and visit the brethren in every city where we proclaimed the word of the Lord, and see how they are." 37And Barnabas wanted to take with them John called Mark. 38But Paul thought best not to take with them one who had withdrawn from them in Pamphyl'ia, and had not gone with them to the work. 39And there arose a sharp contention, so that they separated from each other; Barnabas took Mark with him and sailed away to Cyprus, 40but Paul chose Silas and departed, being commended by the brethren to the grace of the Lord. 41And he went through Syria and Cili'cia, strengthening the churches.


Chapter 16

1And he came also to Derbe and to Lystra. A disciple was there, named Timothy, the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer; but his father was a Greek. 2He was well spoken of by the brethren at Lystra and Ico'nium. 3Paul wanted Timothy to accompany him; and he took him and circumcised him because of the Jews that were in those places, for they all knew that his father was a Greek. 4As they went on their way through the cities, they delivered to them for observance the decisions which had been reached by the apostles and elders who were at Jerusalem. 5So the churches were strengthened in the faith, and they increased in numbers daily. 6And they went through the region of Phry'gia and Galatia, having been forbidden by the Holy Spirit to speak the word in Asia. 7And when they had come opposite My'sia, they attempted to go into Bithyn'ia, but the Spirit of Jesus did not allow them; 8so, passing by My'sia, they went down to Tro'as. 9And a vision appeared to Paul in the night: a man of Macedo'nia was standing beseeching him and saying, "Come over to Macedo'nia and help us." 10And when he had seen the vision, immediately we sought to go on into Macedo'nia, concluding that God had called us to preach the gospel to them. 11Setting sail therefore from Tro'as, we made a direct voyage to Sam'othrace, and the following day to Ne-ap'olis, 12and from there to Philip'pi, which is the leading city of the district of Macedo'nia, and a Roman colony. We remained in this city some days; 13and on the sabbath day we went outside the gate to the riverside, where we supposed there was a place of prayer; and we sat down and spoke to the women who had come together. 14One who heard us was a woman named Lydia, from the city of Thyati'ra, a seller of purple goods, who was a worshiper of God. The Lord opened her heart to give heed to what was said by Paul. 15And when she was baptized, with her household, she besought us, saying, "If you have judged me to be faithful to the Lord, come to my house and stay." And she prevailed upon us. 16As we were going to the place of prayer, we were met by a slave girl who had a spirit of divination and brought her owners much gain by soothsaying. 17She followed Paul and us, crying, "These men are servants of the Most High God, who proclaim to you the way of salvation." 18And this she did for many days. But Paul was annoyed, and turned and said to the spirit, "I charge you in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her." And it came out that very hour. 19But when her owners saw that their hope of gain was gone, they seized Paul and Silas and dragged them into the market place before the rulers; 20and when they had brought them to the magistrates they said, "These men are Jews and they are disturbing our city. 21They advocate customs which it is not lawful for us Romans to accept or practice." 22The crowd joined in attacking them; and the magistrates tore the garments off them and gave orders to beat them with rods. 23And when they had inflicted many blows upon them, they threw them into prison, charging the jailer to keep them safely. 24Having received this charge, he put them into the inner prison and fastened their feet in the stocks. 25But about midnight Paul and Silas were praying and singing hymns to God, and the prisoners were listening to them, 26and suddenly there was a great earthquake, so that the foundations of the prison were shaken; and immediately all the doors were opened and every one's fetters were unfastened. 27When the jailer woke and saw that the prison doors were open, he drew his sword and was about to kill himself, supposing that the prisoners had escaped. 28But Paul cried with a loud voice, "Do not harm yourself, for we are all here." 29And he called for lights and rushed in, and trembling with fear he fell down before Paul and Silas, 30and brought them out and said, "Men, what must I do to be saved?" 31And they said, "Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved, you and your household." 32And they spoke the word of the Lord to him and to all that were in his house. 33And he took them the same hour of the night, and washed their wounds, and he was baptized at once, with all his family. 34Then he brought them up into his house, and set food before them; and he rejoiced with all his household that he had believed in God. 35But when it was day, the magistrates sent the police, saying, "Let those men go." 36And the jailer reported the words to Paul, saying, "The magistrates have sent to let you go; now therefore come out and go in peace." 37But Paul said to them, "They have beaten us publicly, uncondemned, men who are Roman citizens, and have thrown us into prison; and do they now cast us out secretly? No! let them come themselves and take us out." 38The police reported these words to the magistrates, and they were afraid when they heard that they were Roman citizens; 39so they came and apologized to them. And they took them out and asked them to leave the city. 40So they went out of the prison, and visited Lydia; and when they had seen the brethren, they exhorted them and departed.


Chapter 17

1Now when they had passed through Amphip'olis and Apollo'nia, they came to Thessaloni'ca, where there was a synagogue of the Jews. 2And Paul went in, as was his custom, and for three weeks he argued with them from the scriptures, 3explaining and proving that it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead, and saying, "This Jesus, whom I proclaim to you, is the Christ." 4And some of them were persuaded, and joined Paul and Silas; as did a great many of the devout Greeks and not a few of the leading women. 5But the Jews were jealous, and taking some wicked fellows of the rabble, they gathered a crowd, set the city in an uproar, and attacked the house of Jason, seeking to bring them out to the people. 6And when they could not find them, they dragged Jason and some of the brethren before the city authorities, crying, "These men who have turned the world upside down have come here also, 7and Jason has received them; and they are all acting against the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, Jesus." 8And the people and the city authorities were disturbed when they heard this. 9And when they had taken security from Jason and the rest, they let them go. 10The brethren immediately sent Paul and Silas away by night to Beroe'a; and when they arrived they went into the Jewish synagogue. 11Now these Jews were more noble than those in Thessaloni'ca, for they received the word with all eagerness, examining the scriptures daily to see if these things were so. 12Many of them therefore believed, with not a few Greek women of high standing as well as men. 13But when the Jews of Thessaloni'ca learned that the word of God was proclaimed by Paul at Beroe'a also, they came there too, stirring up and inciting the crowds. 14Then the brethren immediately sent Paul off on his way to the sea, but Silas and Timothy remained there. 15Those who conducted Paul brought him as far as Athens; and receiving a command for Silas and Timothy to come to him as soon as possible, they departed. 16Now while Paul was waiting for them at Athens, his spirit was provoked within him as he saw that the city was full of idols. 17So he argued in the synagogue with the Jews and the devout persons, and in the market place every day with those who chanced to be there. 18Some also of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers met him. And some said, "What would this babbler say?" Others said, "He seems to be a preacher of foreign divinities" --because he preached Jesus and the resurrection. 19And they took hold of him and brought him to the Are-op'agus, saying, "May we know what this new teaching is which you present? 20For you bring some strange things to our ears; we wish to know therefore what these things mean." 21Now all the Athenians and the foreigners who lived there spent their time in nothing except telling or hearing something new. 22So Paul, standing in the middle of the Are-op'agus, said: "Men of Athens, I perceive that in every way you are very religious. 23For as I passed along, and observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription, 'To an unknown god.' What therefore you worship as unknown, this I proclaim to you. 24The God who made the world and everything in it, being Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in shrines made by man, 25nor is he served by human hands, as though he needed anything, since he himself gives to all men life and breath and everything. 26And he made from one every nation of men to live on all the face of the earth, having determined allotted periods and the boundaries of their habitation, 27that they should seek God, in the hope that they might feel after him and find him. Yet he is not far from each one of us, 28for 'In him we live and move and have our being'; as even some of your poets have said, 'For we are indeed his offspring.' 29Being then God's offspring, we ought not to think that the Deity is like gold, or silver, or stone, a representation by the art and imagination of man. 30The times of ignorance God overlooked, but now he commands all men everywhere to repent, 31because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed, and of this he has given assurance to all men by raising him from the dead." 32Now when they heard of the resurrection of the dead, some mocked; but others said, "We will hear you again about this." 33So Paul went out from among them. 34But some men joined him and believed, among them Dionys'ius the Are-op'agite and a woman named Dam'aris and others with them.


Chapter 18

1After this he left Athens and went to Corinth. 2And he found a Jew named Aq'uila, a native of Pontus, lately come from Italy with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had commanded all the Jews to leave Rome. And he went to see them; 3and because he was of the same trade he stayed with them, and they worked, for by trade they were tentmakers. 4And he argued in the synagogue every sabbath, and persuaded Jews and Greeks. 5When Silas and Timothy arrived from Macedo'nia, Paul was occupied with preaching, testifying to the Jews that the Christ was Jesus. 6And when they opposed and reviled him, he shook out his garments and said to them, "Your blood be upon your heads! I am innocent. From now on I will go to the Gentiles." 7And he left there and went to the house of a man named Titius Justus, a worshiper of God; his house was next door to the synagogue. 8Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue, believed in the Lord, together with all his household; and many of the Corinthians hearing Paul believed and were baptized. 9And the Lord said to Paul one night in a vision, "Do not be afraid, but speak and do not be silent; 10for I am with you, and no man shall attack you to harm you; for I have many people in this city." 11And he stayed a year and six months, teaching the word of God among them. 12But when Gallio was proconsul of Acha'ia, the Jews made a united attack upon Paul and brought him before the tribunal, 13saying, "This man is persuading men to worship God contrary to the law." 14But when Paul was about to open his mouth, Gallio said to the Jews, "If it were a matter of wrongdoing or vicious crime, I should have reason to bear with you, O Jews; 15but since it is a matter of questions about words and names and your own law, see to it yourselves; I refuse to be a judge of these things." 16And he drove them from the tribunal. 17And they all seized Sos'thenes, the ruler of the synagogue, and beat him in front of the tribunal. But Gallio paid no attention to this. 18After this Paul stayed many days longer, and then took leave of the brethren and sailed for Syria, and with him Priscilla and Aq'uila. At Cen'chre-ae he cut his hair, for he had a vow. 19And they came to Ephesus, and he left them there; but he himself went into the synagogue and argued with the Jews. 20When they asked him to stay for a longer period, he declined; 21but on taking leave of them he said, "I will return to you if God wills," and he set sail from Ephesus. 22When he had landed at Caesare'a, he went up and greeted the church, and then went down to Antioch. 23After spending some time there he departed and went from place to place through the region of Galatia and Phryg'ia, strengthening all the disciples. 24Now a Jew named Apol'los, a native of Alexandria, came to Ephesus. He was an eloquent man, well versed in the scriptures. 25He had been instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in spirit, he spoke and taught accurately the things concerning Jesus, though he knew only the baptism of John. 26He began to speak boldly in the synagogue; but when Priscilla and Aq'uila heard him, they took him and expounded to him the way of God more accurately. 27And when he wished to cross to Acha'ia, the brethren encouraged him, and wrote to the disciples to receive him. When he arrived, he greatly helped those who through grace had believed, 28for he powerfully confuted the Jews in public, showing by the scriptures that the Christ was Jesus.


Bullinger’s Notes on Acts Chs. 14-18 (For KJV)


Chapter 14

Verse 1

it came to pass. See note on Acts 4:5.

both together. Greek. kata to auto. Compare epi to auto. Acts 1:15, &c.

synagogue. App-120.

spake. Greek. laleo. App-121.

multitude. Greek. plethos. See note on Acts 2:6.

Greeks. These were Gentiles. Greek. Hellen.

believed. App-150.


Verse 2

unbelieving. Greek. apeitheo. Compare App-150. This is the second occurrence. First occurrence John 3:36. Often translated "disobedient".

stirred up. Greek. epegeiro. See note on Acts 13:50.

Gentiles. Greek. ethnos. The Greek reads, "stirred up and made evil affected the minds of the Gentiles".

made . . . evil affected = embittered, or poisoned. Greek. kakoo. See note on Acts 7:6.

minds = souls. Greek. psuche. App-110.


Verse 3

abode. Greek. diatribo. See note on Acts 12:19.

speaking boldly. Greek. parrhesiazomai. See note on Acts 9:27.

in. Greek. epi. App-104. Indicating the subject of their discourse.

Which. = Who.

gave testimony = witnessed. Greek. martureo. See p. 1511.

unto = to.

word. Greek. logos. App-121.

grace. Greek. charis. App-184.

granted = gave.

signs. Greek. semeion. App-176.

wonders. Greek. teras. App-176.

by. Greek. dia.


Verse 4

divided. Greek. schizo, to rend; hence schisma, division. See John 7:43John 9:16John 10:19.

part . . . part = some indeed . . . but others.

held = were.

with. Greek. sun. App-104.

apostles. App-189.


Verse 5

assault = onset. Greek. horme. Only here and James 3:4.

rulers, i.e. of the Jews.

use . . . despitefully = insult. Greek. hubrizo. Occurs Matthew 22:6Luke 11:45Luke 18:321 Thessalonians 2:2.


Verse 6

were ware of it, and = having considered it. Greek. suneidon. See note on Acts 5:2.

Lystra, &c. The order in the Greek is "unto the cities of Lycaonia, Lystra andDerbe".

region, &c. Greek. perichoros. Compare Matthew 3:5Luke 4:14.


Verse 7

preached, &c. = were preaching the gospel. Greek. euangelizo. App-121. They were itinerating to evangelize the whole district. Timothy was one of the converts, as, on the return visit, he is called a disciple (Acts 16:1).


Verse 8

certain. Greek. tis. App-123.

man. Greek. aner.

at = in. Greek. en.

being. Texts omit.

a cripple = lame.

from. Greek. ek. App-104.

never. Greek. oudepote.

had. Texts omit.


Verse 9

The same = This one.

heard = was hearing.

stedfastly beholding = gazing at. Greek. atenizo App-133. See note on Acts 1:10.

perceiving. Greek. eidon. App-133.

faith. Greek. pistis. App-150.

healed = saved. Greek. sozo.


Verse 10

Stand. Greek. aniatemi. App-178.:1.

upright = straight. Greek. orthos. Only here and Hebrews 12:13.

walked = began to walk. Compare Isaiah 35:6.


Verse 11

people = crowd. Greek. ochlos.

saw. Greek. eidon. Same as "perceive" in Acts 14:9.

had done = did.

in the speech of Lycaonia. Greek. Lukaonisti.

gods. App-98.

in the likeness of = likened to.

men. Greek. anthropos. App-123. The Lycaonians were no doubt familiar with the legend of Jupiter and Mercury"s visit in disguise to the aged couple, Philemon and Baucis, the scene of which was laid in the neighbouring province of Phrygia. See Ovid, Metam. VIII.


Verse 12

Jupiter. Greek. Zeua. The father of the gods.

Mercurius. Greek. Hermes. The messenger of the gods.

chief speaker. Literally the leader of the word (Greek. logos. App-121.), or message.


Verse 13

which, i.e. whose temple.

oxen and garlands = garlanded oxen. Figure of speech Hendiadys. App-6.

unto. Greek. epi. App-104.

would have, &c. = were desiring (Greek. ethelo. App-102.) to sacrifice.


Verse 14

Which when, &c. = But the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, having heard.

rent. Compare Matthew 26:65.

ran in = rushed in. Greek. eiapedao. Only here and Acts 16:29. The texts read ekpedao, rushed out. Used by medical writers of a bounding pulse.

among = to. Greek. eis. App-104.


Verse 15

Sirs. Greek. andres. App-123. Compare Acts 7:26.

of like passions. Greek. homoiopathes. Only here and James 5:17.

and preach unto you. Literally evangelizing you. See Acts 14:7.

that ye should = to.

vanities = vain things. Greek. mataios. Here, 1 Corinthians 3:201 Corinthians 15:17Titus 3:9James 1:261 Peter 1:18. Used in the Septuagint 1 Kings 16:131 Kings 16:26Jeremiah 8:19Jonah 2:9, &c. Figure of speech Metonymy of Adjunct. App-6.

the living God. This notable expression occurs fifteen times in the O.T., on thirteen occasions (2 Kings 19:42 Kings 19:16 being the same as Isaiah 37:4Isaiah 37:17), viz. Deuteronomy 5:26Joshua 3:101 Samuel 17:261 Samuel 17:362 Kings 19:42 Kings 19:16Psalms 42:2Psalms 84:2Isaiah 37:4Isaiah 37:17Jeremiah 10:10Jeremiah 23:36Daniel 6:20Daniel 6:26Hosea 1:10; and sixteen times in the N.T. Matthew 16:16Matthew 26:63John 6:69, here, Romans 9:262 Corinthians 3:32 Corinthians 6:161 Thessalonians 1:91 Timothy 3:151 Timothy 4:101 Timothy 6:17Hebrews 3:12Hebrews 9:14Hebrews 10:31Hebrews 12:22Revelation 7:2. It is noteworthy that it is used twice by Peter, once by Caiaphas, once in the Revelation, and the remaining twelve times by Paul. The Lord once uses the words "the living Father" in John 6:67. It is of course in contrast with idols. Compare Deuteronomy 32:40.

God. App-98.

heaven = the heaven. See Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.

earth. Greek. ge. App-129.

therein = in (Greek. en.) it.


Verse 16

times = generations. Greek. genea.

past = passed away. Greek. paroichomai. Only here.

nations. Greek. ethnos.


Verse 17

Nevertheless = And yet.

left. Greek. aphiemi. App-174.

without witness. Greek. amarturos. Only here.

in that He did, &c. = doing good. Greek. agathopoieo. Here, Mark 3:4Luke 6:9Luke 6:33Luke 6:351 Peter 2:151 Peter 2:201 Peter 3:61 Peter 3:173 John 1:11.

gave = giving.

from heaven. Greek. ouranothen. An adverb. Only here and Acts 26:13.

fruitful = fruit-bearing. Greek. karpophoros. Only here.

filling = satisfying, Greek. empiplemi. Here, Luke 1:53Luke 6:25John 6:12Romans 15:24. A medical word.

gladness. Greek. euphrosune. Only here and Acts 2:28.


Verse 18

with these sayings = saying these things.

scarce = with difficulty. Greek. molis.

restrained = made to cease. Greek. katapauo. Only here and Hebrews 4:4Hebrews 4:8Hebrews 4:10.


Verse 19

And = But.

who persuaded = and having persuaded. Greek. peitho. App-150.

stoned. Compare 2 Corinthians 11:25.

drew = dragged. Greek. suro. See note on John 21:8.

out of = outside. Greek. exo.

supposing = reckoning. Greek. nomizo. This word, which occurs fifteen times, always means to conclude from custom, law, or evidence, never to imagine. See note on Luke 3:23.

had been dead = was dead, as was the fact.


Verse 20

Howbeit = But.

stood round about = encircled. Greek. kukloo. Only here, Luke 21:20John 10:24Hebrews 11:30Revelation 20:9.

rose up, and = having risen up, i.e. by Divine power. Greek. anistemi. App-178. Same word as "stand" in Acts 14:10.

the, next day = on the morrow. Compare Matthew 10:23.

to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104.


Verse 21

when they had = having.

had taught = having made disciples of. Greek. matheteuo. Only here, Matthew 13:52Matthew 27:57Matthew 28:19.


Verse 22

confirming. Greek. episterizo. Only here, Acts 15:32Acts 15:41Acts 18:23. The simple verb sterizo occurs thirteen times, first occurance Luke 9:51. The kindred verb stereoo only in Acts. See Acts 3:7.

souls. Greek. psuche. App-110.

exhorting. Greek. parakaleo. App-134.

continue. Greek. emmeno. Only here, Galatians 1:3Galatians 1:10Hebrews 8:9. Compound of meno. See p. 1511.

the faith. Greek. pistis. App-150. Compare Acts 6:7Acts 13:8.

that. Ellipsis of "saying".

tribulation. Greek. thlipsis. See note on Acts 7:10.

the kingdom of God. App-114.


Verse 23

when they had = having.

ordained = chosen. Greek. cheirotoneo. Only here and 2 Corinthians 8:19.

elders. App-189. Compare Titus 1:5.

church. App-186.

and had prayed = having prayed. Greek. proseuchomai. App-134.

fasting = fastings. Compare Acts 13:2.

commended. Greek. paratithemi. Compare Luke 23:46.

believed. App-150.


Verse 24

after they had = having.


Verse 25

preached = spoken. Greek. laleo. App-121.

Attalia. A town on the coast of Pamphylia. Greek. Attaleia.


Verse 26

sailed = sailed away. Greek. apopleo. See note on Acts 13:4.

recommended = committed. Greek. paradidomi. See note on John 19:30. grace. Greek. charis. App-184.


Verse 27

when they were = having.

had = having.

rehearsed = recited. Greek. anangello. Compare App-121Acts 5:6.

all that = whatsoever.

had done = did.

the = a.


Verse 28

long time = no (Greek. ou. App-105. I) little time. About two years and a half.


Chapter 15

Verse 1

certain men. Greek. tis. App-123. These men are disavowed by the Apostles (Acts 15:24). Compare Galatians 1:2Galatians 1:12.

Judaea. As though from head-quarters. Perhaps some of the priests of Acts 6:7. Compare Galatians 1:2Galatians 1:4.

taught = were teaching.

the brethren. See note on Acts 11:26.

Except = If not. Greek. ean (App-118) me (App-105).

after = in.

manner = custom. See note on Acts 6:14.

Moses. See notes on Acts 3:24Matthew 8:4, and compare John 7:22.

cannot. Literally are not able to.

saved. Compare Acts 15:11, and Acts 16:30.


Verse 2

When therefore, &c. Literally Now no small dissension and disputation having taken place by Paul, &c.

dissension = disagreement. Greek. stasis, a standing up. The word for sedition. Occurs: Acts 19:40Acts 23:7Acts 23:10Acts 24:5Mark 15:7Luke 23:19Luke 23:25Hebrews 9:8.

disputation. Greek. suzetesis. Only here, Acts 15:7Acts 28:29. Texts read zetesis, questioning. Compare Acts 25:20.

with = towards. Greek. pros. App-104.

determined = appointed. Greek. tasso. Same as "ordained" (Acts 13:48).

other = others. Greek. allos. App-124.

apostles and elders. App-189.

question. Greek. zetema. Here, Acts 18:15Acts 23:29Acts 25:19Acts 26:3. Compare "disputation" above.


Verse 3

And = They indeed therefore.

being brought on their way. Greek. propempo. Compare App-174. Here, Acts 20:38Acts 21:5Romans 15:241 Corinthians 16:61 Corinthians 16:62 Corinthians 1:16Titus 3:133 John 1:6. Compare Genesis 18:16.

church. App-186.

passed = were passing.

Phenice: i.e. Phenicia. This shows they went by the coast road.

declaring. See note on Acts 13:41.

conversion. Greek. epistrophe. Only here. For the verb, which occurs thirty-nine times, see Acts 15:19 with Acts 3:19.

Gentiles. Greek. ethnos.

unto = to.


Verse 4

come. This was Paul"s third visit. Not by revelation. No Divine action.

received. Greek. apodechomai. See note on Acts 2:41.

of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104.

declared = - related. Greek. anangello, Same as "rehearsed" (Acts 14:27).

God. App-98.

with. Greek. meta. App-104. as His instrument (Acts 15:12).


Verse 5

rose up. Greek. exanistemi. App-178.

of = of those from (Greek. apo. App-104.) sect. Greek. hairesis. See note on Acts 5:17.

Pharisees. App-120.

believed. App-150. in Jerusalem.

was = is.

keep = observe. Greek. tereo.


Verse 6

came together = were gathered together

for. Omit.

consider = see. Greek. eidon. App-133.

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.

matter. Greek. logos. App-121.


Verse 7

disputing. Same as disputation, Acts 15:2. Much feeling would be exhibited.

rose up. Greek. anistimi. App-178.

Men and brethren. See note on Acts 1:16.

know. Greek. epistamai. App-132.

a good while ago. Literally from early (Greek. archaios) days, i.e. about thirteen years before. App-181.

made choice = chose out. Greek. eklegomai, as in Acts 1:2.

by = through. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 15:1. Compare Acts 10:44-48.

word. Greek. logos. App-121.


Verse 8

Which knoweth, &c. = the Heart-searcher. See note on Acts 1:24.

bare . . . witness. Greek. martureo. See p. 1511.

the Holy Ghost. Both articles are here, but used grammatically, referring back to Acts 2:4 (the same gift). App-101.

even as, &c. = as He did to us also.


Verse 9

put no difference = discriminated in nothing. Greek. diakrino.

purifying = having cleansed. Greek. katharizo. Compare Acts 10:15Acts 11:9. The Heartsearcher is the Heart-cleanser.

faith = the faith. Greek. pistis. App-150.


Verse 10

tempt. Greek. peira, try, put to the test. Always transl "tempt" up to this verse, except John 6:6 (prove). Compare Acts 5:9.

put = lay.

yoke. Not circumcision only, but obligation to keep the whole law.

neither . . . nor. Greek. oute . . . oute.

were able = had strength. Greek. ischuo. Compare App-172.

bear = carry. Greek. bastazo. Compare Matthew 3:11.


Verse 11

believe. App-150.

grace. App-184.

Jesus Christ. App-98. but texts omit "Christ".

even as they = according to (Greek. kata. App-104.) the manner in which they also (will be). These are the last words of Peter recorded in the Acts. See his own argument turned against himself in Galatians 1:2Galatians 1:14-21.


Verse 12

multitude. Greek. plethos. See note on Acts 2:6.

gave audience = were listening to.

declaring. Greek. exegeomai. See note on Acts 10:8.

what = how many, or how great. Compare Mark 3:8.

miracles = signs. Greek. semeion. App-176.

wonders. Greek. teras. App-176.


Verse 13

held their peace. Same as kept silence in Acts 15:12.

James. See note on Acts 12:17.

answered. App-122.

hearken unto = hear. Same word as "gave audience" in Acts 15:12, and "hear", verses: Acts 15:7Acts 15:24.


Verse 14

Simeon = Simon. Greek. Sumeon. Compare 2 Peter 1:1.

at the first, &c. = first visited. Greek. episkeptomai. App-133. Compare Luke 1:68Luke 78:7Luke 78:16.

the Gentiles, &c. Read, to receive out from among the Gentiles.

people. Greek. laos.

for. Greek. epi, but texts omit the preposition.


Verse 15

agree. Gr sumphoneo. See note on Acts 5:9.

prophets. Only one prophet is quoted (Amos 9:11Amos 9:12), but there are many similar predictions in Isaiah and others. See App-107.

is has been.


Verse 16

will return, &c. A Hebraism for "I will build again". Compare Genesis 26:18Numbers 11:4 (margin)

return. Greek. anastrepho. Compare Acts 5:22. But elsewhere refers to passing one"s life, except John 2:15 (overthrow). Compare the noun anastrope. Always translated "conversation", i.e. manner of life, or behaviour.

build again = build up. Greek. anoikodomeo. Only here.

tabernacle = tent. Greek. skene, as in Acts 7:43Acts 7:44. Not the house or throne. Significant of the lowliness of its condition when He comes to raise it up.

ruins. Literally things dug down. Greek. kataskapto. Only here and Romans 11:3. The texts read "things overturned". Greek. katastrepho.

sat it up = make upright or straight. Greek. anorthoo. Here, Luke 13:13Hebrews 12:12.


Verse 17

the residue. Greek. kataloipos. Only here. It is the faithful remnant.

men. Greek. anthropos. App-123. The Hebrew would be adam, while the Authorized Version text of Amos 9:12 is Edom (Hebr. edom), but the consonants are the same, and the only difference is in the pointing. That adam, not Edom, is right can hardly be questioned, or James would not have used it.

seek after = earnestly seek. Greek. ekzeteo. Only here, Luke 11:50Luke 11:51Romans 3:11Hebrews 11:6Hebrews 12:171 Peter 1:10. Compare Jeremiah 29:13.

all the Gentiles. The Gentiles take the second place. Zechariah 8:23.

My name. Compare James 2:7Deuteronomy 28:10Jeremiah 14:9

Who doeth, &c. Most of the texts read, "Who maketh these things known from the beginning of the world", and omit "unto God are all His works". See Revised Version and margin.


Verse 18

Known. Greek. gnostos. See note on Acts 1:19.

from the . . . world = from the age. Greek. ap" aionos. App-151.


Verse 19

my sentence is = I judge, or decide. Greek. krino. App-122.

that we trouble not = not (Greek. me. App-105) to trouble or harass. Greek. parenochleo. Only here. Compare kindred verbs in Acts 5:16Hebrews 12:15.

from among. Greek. apo. App-104.

are turned = are turning. Greek. epistrepho. See Acts 15:3, and Acts 9:35.


Verse 20

write. Greek. epistello. Only here, Acts 21:25Hebrews 13:22.

abstain. Greek. mid. of apecho. This form occurs here, Acts 15:291 Thessalonians 4:31 Thessalonians 5:221 Timothy 4:31 Peter 2:11.

pollutions. Greek. alisgema. Only here. Pollution would be caused by eating unclean (forbidden) food. Compare Acts 15:29. 1Co 8. The verb alisgeo occurs in the Septuagint of Daniel 1:8 and Malachi 1:7Malachi 1:12.

fornication. In many cases the rites of heathenism involved uncleanness as an act of worship. Compare Numbers 25:1-15. Probably the worship of the golden calf was of that character (Exodus 32:6Exodus 32:25).

strangled. Greek. pniktot. Only here, Acts 15:29Acts 21:25. The verb pnigo occurs Matthew 18:28Mark 5:13. In this case the blood remained in the carcase, contrary to Leviticus 17:10-14.


Verse 21

old time. Literally ancient (Greek. archaios, as in Acts 15:7) generations.

in every city. Greek. kata (App-104.) polin, i.e. city by city. A similar idiom occurs below, "every Sabbath day".

preach. Greek. kerusso. App-121. The question was whether Gentile converts, entering by the door of faith (Acts 14:27), could be saved by faith alone without the seal of faith (Romans 4:11). In other words, whether they could belong to the family of believers (up to this time and later held as a strictly Jewish polity) without formal admission as "strangers" in accordance with Ex. Acts 12:43Acts 12:44. The Epistle to the Hebrews was probably written to make the position clear to Hebrews and converts alike.

synagogues. App-120.

every, &c. See above.


Verse 22

pleased it = it seemed (good) to. Greek. dokeo.

send. Greek. pempo. App-174.

chosen men = men chosen out.

their own company = themselves.

Barsabas = Barsabbas. Perhaps a brother of Joseph of Acts 1:23. See Acts 15:32.

Silas. So called in Acts. In the Epistles Silvanus. This was a Latin name, and he was a Roman citizen (Acts 16:37).

chief = leading. Greek. hegeomai.


Verse 23

And they wrote = Having written. In Acts 15:30 it is called "a letter".

after this manner. The texts omit.

greeting. Greek. chairein. Literally to rejoice. Figure of speech Ellipsis (App-6). I bid you to rejoice. Compare Fr. adieu, (I commend you) to God. Compare Acts 23:26James 1:1.

in = throughout. Greek. kata, as in Acts 15:21.


Verse 24

have. Omit.

subverting = unsettling. Greek. anaskeuazo. Only here, and not in Septuagint

your souls = you (emph.) Greek. psuche. App-110.

saying . . . law. The texts omit.

gave no such commandment = commanded it not.


Verse 25

It seemed good. Same word as "it pleased"Acts 15:22.

being assembled = having come to be.

with one accord. Greek. homothumadon. See note on Acts 1:14.


Verse 26

that have hazarded. Literally having given up. Greek. paradidomi. Often translated "deliver up", or "betray". In Acts 15:40 with Acts 14:26 "recommend".

lives. Greek. psuche. App-110.

for = in behalf of. Greek. huper. App-104.


Verse 27

have sent. Greek. apostello. App-174.

who shall also tell. Literally themselves also telling. See note on Acts 12:14.

mouth = word (of mouth). Gr. logos. App-121.


Verse 28

the Holy Ghost. App-101.

us: i.e. the whole church (Acts 15:22).

burden. Greek. baros. Occurs here, Matthew 20:122 Corinthians 4:17Galatians 1:6Galatians 1:21 Thessalonians 2:6Revelation 2:24.

than = except.

necessary = compulsory. Greek. epanankes. Only here. Circumcision therefore was not compulsory.


Verse 29

meats offered to idols. Greek. eidolothutos. Occurs here, Acts 21:251 Corinthians 8:11 Corinthians 8:41 Corinthians 8:71 Corinthians 8:101 Corinthians 10:191 Corinthians 10:28Revelation 2:14Revelation 2:20. This explains what the pollutions (Acts 15:20) were.

if ye keep = keeping carefully. Greek. diatereo. Only here and Luke 2:51.

Fare ye well. Literally be strong. Greek. ronnumi. Only here and Acts 23:30. The usual way of ending a letter.


Verse 30

when they, &c. = having then been dismissed, i.e. let go. Greek. apoluo, as in Acts 15:33. App-174.

when they had = having.


Verse 31

Which, &c. = And having read it.

consolation. See Acts 4:36Acts 13:15.


Verse 32

being prophets also themselves = being themselves also prophets. See App-189.

exhorted. Greek. parakaleo. App-134.

with = by means of. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 15:1.

confirmed = strengthened. Greek. episterizo. See note on Acts 14:22.


Verse 33

after, &c. = having continued some time. Literally made time.

were let go. Same as "dismissed" in Acts 15:30.

in = with. Greek. meta. App-104.


Verse 34

This verse is omitted by all the texts. The Revised Version puts it in the margin.


Verse 35

Paul also = But Paul.

continued. Greek. diatribo. See note on Acts 12:19.

preaching. Greek. euangelizo. App-121.

others. Greek. heteros. App-124.


Verse 36

some days after = after certain (Greek. tis. App-123.) days.

where = in (Greek. en) which.

have preached. = preached. Greek. katangello. App-121.

do = fare.


Verse 37

determined = purposed. Greek. louleuo. See Acts 5:33Acts 27:39. But the texts read boulomai. App-102.

take with them. Greek. sumparalambano. See Acts 12:25.

John. See note on Acts 12:12.

whose surname was = who was called.


Verse 38

thought . . . good. Greek. axioo, to reckon worthy, or right. Here, Acts 28:22Luke 7:72 Thessalonians 1:111 Timothy 5:17Hebrews 3:3Hebrews 10:29.

departed = fell away. Greek. aphistemi. Compare Luke 8:13.


Verse 39

And the contention, &c. But there arose a sharp contention. Greek. paroxusmos. Only here and Hebrews 10:24. A medical word. The verb occurs in Acts 17:16.

that = so that.

departed asunder = separated. Greek. apochorizomai. Only here and Revelation 6:14.

one from the other = from one another

Barnabas. He here disappears from the history.

took and = having taken.

sailed = sailed away. Greek. ekpleo. Only here, Acts 18:18Acts 20:6.


Verse 40

chose . . . and = having chosen. Greek. epilegomai. Only here and John 5:2 (called).

recommended. See Acts 15:26.

God. The texts read "the Lord".

Acts 14


Chapter 16

Verse 1

came . . . to = arrived at. Greek. katantao. Occurs nine times in Acts, four times in Paul"s epistles. Always accompanied by eis, except Acts 20:15.

named = by name.

Timotheus. From this time closely associated with Paul in the ministry (Romans 16:21). He was probably one of his converts at his previous visit (Acts 14:7). Compare my own son in the faith (1 Timothy 1:21 Timothy 1:182 Timothy 1:2). In six of Paul"s epistles Timothy is joined with him in the opening salutation. His name, which means honour of God, or valued by God (time and theos), suggests the important part he was to take in the revelation of God"s eternal purpose.

son. Greek. huios. App-108.

certain. Texts omit.

and believed = a believer. Greek. pistos. App-150. Eunice (2 Timothy 1:5), as well as her mother Lois, had instructed Timothy in the Holy Scriptures from his infancy (2 Timothy 3:15).

Greek : i.e. a Gentile (Greek. Hellen). His influence doubtless prevented Timothy"s being circumcised when eight days old.


Verse 2

well reported of = borne witness to. Greek. martureo. See p. 1511.

at = in. Greek. en. App-104.


Verse 3

would Paul have = Paul purposed. Greek. thelo. App-102.

go forth. Greek. exerchomai.

because of. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 16:2.

quarters = places.

knew. Greek. oida. App-132.

was = was by race. Greek. kuparcho. See note on Luke 9:48.


Verse 4

went through = were going through. Greek. diaporeuomai. Occurs elsewhere Luke 6:1Luke 13:22Luke 18:36Romans 15:24.

decrees, or edicts. Greek. dogma. Occurs also Acts 17:7Luke 2:1Ephesians 2:15Colossians 2:14.

keep = observe, or guard. Greek. phulasso.

ordained = decided. Greek. krino. App-122.

of = by, as in Acts 16:2.

apostles, &c. App-189.


Verse 5

And so, &c. = The churches indeed therefore.

churches. App-186.

established. Greek. stereoo. See note on Acts 3:7Acts 14:22. A medical word.

faith. App-150.

daily. Greek. kath" (App-104.) hemeran, i.e. day by day.


Verse 6

Now, &c. The texts read, "They went through".

the region of Galatia = the Galatian country.

forbidden = hindered.

the Holy Ghost. App-101.

preach = speak. Greek. laleo. App-121.

word. Greek. logos. App-121.

Asia. See note on Acts 2:9.


Verse 7

After they were = Having.

to = down to. Greek. kata. App-104. to the border of Mysia. Revised Version "over against".

assayed = were attempting. Greek. peirazo. See Acts 15:10.

into. Greek. kata, as above, but the texts read eis.

Bithynia. The province of Bithynia and Pontns, lying on the S. E. shores of the Propontis (Sea of Marmora), and the south shore of the Pontus Euxinus (Black Sea)

the Spirit = the Holy Spirit. App-101. The texts add "of Jesus", but it was the same Spirit Who sent Paul and Barnabas forth from Antioch (Acts 13:2Acts 13:4), and had already hindered Paul and Silas (verses: Acts 16:6Acts 16:7). The Spirit promised by the Lord Jesus (Acts 2:33John 16:7).


Verse 8

Troas. Alexandreia Troas, the port on the coast of Mysia, about thirty miles south of the Dardanelles. Now Eski stamboul.


Verse 9

vision. Greek. horama. See note on Acts 7:31. It has been suggested that Paul had met Luke, and that it was he who was seen in the vision.

appeared to = was seen by. Greek. horao. App-133.

in = through. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 16:1.

There stood, &c. = A certain (Greek. tis. App-123.) man (Greek. aner. App-123.), a Macedonian, was standing.

prayed = praying. App-134.


Verse 10

after = when.

had seen = saw. Greek. eidon. App-133.

we. Here Luke comes upon the scene.

endeavoured = sought.

assuredly gathering. Greek. sumbibazo. See note on Acts 9:22.

the Lord. App-98., but the texts read "God".

for to . . . them. Literally to evangelize them. Greek. euangelizo. App-121.


Verse 11

loosing. See note on Acts 13:13.

came, &c. = ran direct. Greek. euthudromeo. Only here and Acts 21:1. i.e. ran before the wind.

Samothracia. The highest in elevation of the northern AEgean islands, midway between Troas and Philippi.

next. See note on Acts 7:26.

Neapolis. The harbour of Philippi, distant about ten miles away. The first European soil trodden by Paul It had taken two days with a favourable wind. Compare Acts 20:6.


Verse 12

Philippi. The scene of the decisive battle which ended the Roman republic 42 B.C.

the chief city, &c. Literally the first of the district, a city of Macedonia, a colony. Amphipolis had been the chief city, and was still a rival of Philippi.

colony. Greek. kolonia. Only here. A Roman military settlement. The word survives in the names of some places in England, e.g. Lincoln. These colonies were settlements of old soldiers and others established by Augustus to influence the native people. Hence the significance of Acts 16:37.

abiding. Greek. diatribo. See note on Acts 12:19.


Verse 13

on the sabbatb = on the (first) day of the sabbaths. See note on John 20:1.

out of. Greek. exo, without.

city. The texts read "gate".

by a river side = beside (Greek. para. App-104.) the river. No art. because the river (the Gangas) was well known to Luke.

where, &c. The texts read "where we reckoned prayer would be". See note on Acts 14:19.

prayer. Greek. proseuche. App-134. Here a place of prayer.

spake. Greek. laleo. App-121.

unto = to.

resorted thither = came together.


Verse 14

seller of purple. Greek. porphuropolis. Only here. The celebrated purple dye was made from the murex, a shell-fish. Referred to by Homer.

Thyatira. On the Lycus in Lydia. Inscriptions of the guild of Dyers at Thyatira.

which worshipped = one worshipping. Greek. sebomai. App-137. No doubt a proselyte.

God. App-98.

heard = was hearing.

opened = opened effectually. Greek. dianoigo. Only here, Acts 17:3Mark 7:34Mark 7:35Luke 2:23Luke 24:31Luke 24:32Luke 24:45.


Verse 15

baptized. App-115.

besought. Greek. parakaleo. App-134.

judged. Greek. krino. App-122.

faithful. Greek. pistos. App-150.

abide. Greek. meno. See p. 1511.

constrained. Greek. parabiazomai. Only here and Luke 24:29. Hindered in Asia their first convert is an Asiatic.


Verse 16

damsel. Greek. paidiske. See note on Acts 12:13. read "a spirit, a Python". The Python was a serpent destroyed, according to Greek Mythology, by Apollo, who was hence called Pythius, and the priestess at the famous temple at Delph was called the Pythoness. Through her the oracle was delivered. See an instance of these oracular utterances in Pember"s Earth"s Earliest Ages, ch. XII. The term Python became equivalent to a soothsaying demon, as in the case of this slave-girl who had an evil spirit as "control". She would be nowadays called a medium. The Lord"s commission in Mark 16 was to cast out demons (Acts 16:17). To say that the girl was a ventriloquist, who was disconcerted, and so lost her power, shows what shifts are resorted to in order to get rid of the supernatural.

masters = owners. Greek. kurios. App-98.

gain. Greek. ergasia = work; hence, wages, pay. Only here, Acts 16:19Acts 19:24Acts 19:25Luke 12:58Ephesians 4:19.

soothsaying = fortune-telling. Greek. manteuomai. Only here. In Septuagint used of false prophets. Deuteronomy 18:101 Samuel 28:8, &c.


Verse 17

The same = This one.

followed . . . and = following persistently. Greek. katakoloutheo. Only here and Luke 23:55.

cried = kept crying, i.e. the demon in her. Compare Matthew 8:29Luke 4:33.

men. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

servants = bond-servants. Greek. doulos. App-190.

Most High God. See note on Luke 1:32 and compare Mark 5:7. Not necessarily a testimony to the true God, as the term was applied to Zeus.

shew = proclaim. Greek. katangello. App-121.

us. The texts read "you".

salvation. Compare Luke 4:34, where a demon testifies to the Lord, to discredit Him.


Verse 18

did = was doing.

many = for (Greek. epi. App-104.) many.

grieved = worn out with annoyance. Greek. diaponeomai. Only here and Acts 4:2.

command. Greek. parangello. See note on Acts 1:4.

the name. See note on Acts 2:38.

Jesus Christ. App-98.

out of = out from. Greek. apo. App-104.


Verse 19

was gone = came out. Same word as in Acts 16:18. Perhaps the demon rent and tore her in coming out, as in Mark 9:26Luke 9:42.

caught = laid hold on.

drew = dragged. Greek. helkuo. Compare Acts 21:30, where helko, the classical form, is used, and see note on John 12:32.

marketplace. Greek. agora. Where the courts were held. Latin. forum.

rulers = authorities. Greek. archon.


Verse 20

brought. Greek. prosago. Only here, Acts 27:27Luke 9:411 Peter 3:18.

magistrates. These were Romans. Greek. strategos. Showing Luke"s accuracy. The magistrates of this colony bore the same title as at Rome, praetors, for which strategos is the Greek rendering, though before this it is applied to the captain of the Temple guard.

being. Greek. huparcho. See note on Luke 9:48.

exceedingly trouble. Greek. ektarasso. Only here. It suggests that a riot was feared.


Verse 21

teach = proclaim. Same as "shew" (Acts 16:17).

customs. Greek. ethos. See note on Acts 6:14.

are = it is.

receive. Greek. paradechomai. Only here, Acts 22:18Mark 4:201 Timothy 5:19Hebrews 12:6.

neither. Greek. oude.

observe = do. being. Greek. eimi. Note the distinction. These men, being Jews to begin with . . . us who are Romans, as is well known.


Verse 22

multitude = crowd. Greek. ochlos.

rose up together. Greek. sunephistemi. Only here.

against. Greek. kata. App-104.

rent off. Greek. perirregnumi. Only here.

beat them = beat them with rods. Greek. rabdizo. Only here and 2 Corinthians 11:25. The lictors who attended on the praetors carried rods or staves (rabdos) for the purpose, and were called rod-bearers. Greek. rabdouchos. See Acts 16:35.


Verse 23

stripes. Greek. plege. Four times translated "wound", five times "stripe", and twelve times "plague".

charging. Same as "command" in Acts 16:18.

jailor. Greek. desmophulax, i.e. keeper of the prison. Only here and verses: Acts 16:27Acts 16:36.

keep. Greek. tereo. Compare Acts 12:5Acts 12:6.

safely. Greek. asphalos. See note on Mark 14:44.


Verse 24

thrust = cast, as Acts 16:23.

inner. Greek. esoteros. Comparative of eso, within. Only here and Hebrews 6:19.

made . . . fast = made safe. Greek. asphalizo. Only here and Matthew 27:64-66.

in the stocks. Literally unto (Greek. eis. App-104.) the wood.


Verse 25

midnight. Greek. meaonuktion. Only here, Acts 20:7Mark 13:35Luke 11:5.

prayed, and = praying. Greek. proseuchomai. App-134.

sang praises unto. Literally were hymning. Greek. humneo. Here, Matthew 26:30Mark 14:26Hebrews 2:12. The first two passages refer to the great Hallel. See notes on Matthew 26:30. Psalm 113. If this were sung by Paul and Silas, note the beautiful significance of Psalms 115:11Psalms 116:3Psalms 116:4Psalms 116:15Psalms 116:17Psalms 118:6Psalms 118:29, and in the result, Psalms 114:7. The noun humnoa (hymn) only in Ephesians 5:19Colossians 3:16.

heard = were listening to. Greek. epakroaomai. Only here. The noun occurs in 1 Samuel 15:22 (Septuagint).


Verse 26

suddenly. Greek. aphno. See note on Acts 2:2.

earthquake. Greek. seismos. See note on Matthew 8:24.

prison. Greek. desmoterion. See note on Acts 5:21. Not the word phulake which occurs in verses: Acts 16:23Acts 16:24Acts 16:27Acts 23:37Acts 23:40.

shaken. Greek. saleuo. See Acts 4:31.

loosed. Greek. aniemi. Only here, Acts 27:40Ephesians 6:9Hebrews 13:5.


Verse 27

keeper of the prison. Same as "jailor" (Acts 16:23).

awaking out of his sleep. Literally becoming awake. Greek. exupnos. Only here. The verb exupnizo only in John 11:11.

drew out = drew.

would have killed = was about to kill. Greek. anaireo. See note on Acts 2:23.

supposing. Greek. nomizo. See note on Acts 14:19.

been fled = escaped. Compare Acts 12:19Acts 27:42. Roman soldiers were responsible with their lives for prisoners in their charge.


Verse 28

Do thyself no harm = Do nothing (Greek. medeis) evil (Greek. kakos. App-128.) to thyself.


Verse 29

called for = asked for. Greek. aiteo. App-134.

light. Greek. phos. App-130.

sprang in. Greek. eispedao. Only here and Acts 14:14

came trembling = becoming (Greek. ginomai) in a tremble (Greek. entromos). See note on Acts 7:32.


Verse 30

out = outside. Greek. exo.

Sirs. Greek. kurios. Compare App-98. Same as "masters" (Acts 16:16).

to be = in order that (Greek. hina) I may be. This man was under deep conviction of sin, "shaken to his foundations". He was ready to be told of the Lord Jesus Christ. To bid people to believe, who are not under conviction, is vain.


Verse 31

Believe. Greek. pisteuo. App-150.

Christ. The texts omit. Compare Matthew 1:21.

thy house: i.e. on the same condition of faith.


Verse 33

the same = in (Greek. en. App-104.) the same.

washed = bathed them. Greek. louo. App-136.

their stripes = from (Greek. apo. App-104.) their wounds.

straightway. Greek. parachrema. Same as immediately (V. 26). See note on Acts 3:7.


Verse 34

brought. Greek. anago. Same as "loosed"Acts 16:11.

set meat = placed a table. Compare Psalms 23:5.

rejoiced. See noteon "was glad"Acts 2:26.

believing. App-150.

with all his house. Greek. panoiki, an adverb. Only here.


Verse 35

sent. Greek. apostello. App-174.

Serjeants = lictors. Greek. rabdouchos. See Acts 16:22. Only here and Acts 16:38.

Let . . . go = Release. Gr, apoluo. App-174.


Verse 36

told = reported. Greek. apangello. See note on Acts 4:23.

this saying = these words. Greek. logos, as in Acts 16:6.

to, &c. = in order that (Greek. hina) you may be released.

depart = come forth.


Verse 37

unto. Same as "to" in Acts 16:36.

beaten. Greek. dero, as in Acts 5:40.

openly = publicly. Greek. demosia. See note on Acts 5:18.

uncondemned = without investigation. Greek. akatakritos. Only here and Acts 22:25.

Romans = men (Greek. anthropos) Romans. The charge was that they were Jews, introducing alien customs, and the magistrates condemned them without

privily = secretly. Greek. lathra. Only here, Matthew 1:19Matthew 2:7John 11:28. Note the contrast, "openly . . . secretly". Figure of speech Antithesis. App-6.

nay verily = no (Greek. ou. App-105.) indeed.

fetch = lead. Same word as in Acts 5:19Acts 7:36Acts 7:40.


Verse 38

"words. Greek. rhema. See note on Mark 9:32.

feared = were alarmed. Compare Acts 22:29. They had violated the Roman law by which no Roman citizen could be scourged, or put to death, by any provincial governor without an appeal to the Emperor. Compare Acts 25:11Acts 25:12.


Verse 39

brought. Same word as "fetch" (Acts 16:37).

desired = were praying. Greek. erotao. App-134.


Verse 40

comforted = exhorted. Greek. parakaleo, as in verses: Acts 16:9Acts 16:15Acts 16:39.


Chapter 17

Verse 1

passed through. Greek. diodeuo. Only here and Luke 8:1. A medical word.

Amphipolis. About thirty-three miles south-west of Philippi.

Apollonia. Thirty miles further, about midway between Amphipolis and Thessalonica. Thessal. onica. Now Salonica or Saloniki. Rose to importance in the time of Cassander, who rebuilt it and called it after his wife. Has been an important city in the past, and also in recent days during the second Balkan war (1913), and seems destined to play an important part in the immediate future.

synagogue. App-120.


Verse 2

Paul, &c. Literally according to (Greek. kata. App-104.) that which was customary (Greek. etho) with Paul, he. This verb etho Occurs only here, Matthew 27:15Mark 10:1Luke 4:16.

three, &c. On (Greek. epi. App-104.) three sabbath days.

reasoned. Greek. dialegomai. Second occurance. First, Mark 9:34. Occurs ten times in Acts.

out of = from. Greek. apo. App-104.


Verse 3

Opening. See note on Acts 16:14.

alleging. Literally setting before them. Greek. paratithemi. See Acts 14:23Acts 16:34Acts 20:32Matthew 13:24Mark 8:6Mark 8:71 Corinthians 10:27.

Christ must needs, &c. Literally it was necessary that the Messiah should suffer and rise

risen. Greek. anistemi. App-178.

from the dead. Greek. ek nekron. App-139.

this, &c. = this is the Christ, Jesus, Whom I proclaim.

Jesus. App-98.

preach. Greek. katangello. App-121.

unto = to.


Verse 4

some = certain. Greek. tis. App-123.

of = out of. Greek. ek. App-104.

believed = were persuaded. Greek. peitho. App-150. were convinced, not by persuasive words of Paul"s (1 Corinthians 2:4), but by the opening and expounding of the Scriptures. Hence the Thessalonians became a type of all true believers (see 1 Thessalonians 1:71 Thessalonians 2:13). This and verses: Acts 17:11Acts 17:12 beautifully illustrate Romans 10:17.

consorted with = cast in their lot with. Greek. proskeroomai. Only here.

devout. Greek. sebomai. App-137. Same as "worshipping" or "religious". Compare Acts 13:43Acts 13:50Acts 16:14Acts 18:7.

multitude. Greek. pethos. See note on Acts 2:6.

chief first. Compare Acts 13:50. i.e. women of the best families.


Verse 5

the Jews, &c. = the unbelieving (Greek. apeitheo, as in Acts 14:2) Jews.

moved with envy = filled with jealousy. Greek. zeloo, as in Acts 7:8.

took unto them. Greek. proslambano. See Acts 18:26Acts 27:33Acts 27:34Acts 27:36Matthew 16:22Mark 8:32. in Acts 28:2 and onward it is translated "receive".

certain. Same as "some" (Acts 17:4).

lewd = evil. Greek. poneros. App-128. Lewd is from AS. laewed, lay.

fellows = men. Greek. aner. App-123.

of the baser sort. Literally belonging to the market. Greek. agoraios. Only here and Acts 19:38. These were idlers, ready for mischief, as we should say "rowdies".

gathered a company. Greek. ochlopoieo, to make a crowd. Only here.

set . . . on an uproar = were setting, &c. Greek. thorubeomai. Occurs here, Acts 20:10Matthew 9:23Mark 5:39. Compare "uproar" (Acts 20:1).

all. Omit.

assaulted . . . and. Having attacked.

sought = were seeking.

them. i.e. Paul and Silas, who were staying with Jason (Acts 17:7).

people. Greek. demos. See note on Acts 12:22. Either the mob or the popular assembly, for Thessalonica was a free city.


Verse 6

when, &c. = not (Greek. me. App-105) having found them.

drew = were dragging. Greek. suro. See note on John 21:8.

brethren. The believers of Acts 17:4.

unto = before. Greek. epi. App-104.

rulers of the city. Greek. politarches, compound oi polites, citizen, and archo, to rule. Only here and Acts 17:8. The noun or the corresponding verb is found in many inscriptions in Macedonia, five of them in Thessalonica. One on an arch spanning a street to-day, where seven politarchs are recorded, and amongst them Sosipater, Secundus, and Gaius, names identical with those of Paul"s friends (Acts 19:29Acts 20:4).

turned . . . upside down. Greek. anastatoo. Only here, Acts 21:38Galatians 1:5Galatians 1:12. Compare anastasis. App-178.

world. Greek. oikoumene. App-129.


Verse 7

received, i.e. as guests. Greek. hupodechomai. Here, Luke 10:38Luke 19:6James 2:25. A medical word.

do = practise. Greek. pratto.

contrary to. Greek. apenanti. See Acts 3:16Matthew 21:2.

decrees. Greek. dogma. See note on Acts 16:4.

another. Greek. heteros. App-124.

king. The same sinister attempt to raise the charge of high treason, as in John 18:36John 18:37John 19:12. Paul, in proclaiming the Messiah, must have spoken of His reign.


Verse 8

troubled. Greek. tarasso. See note on John 5:4.

people = crowd. Greek. ochlos.


Verse 9

security. Greek. to hikanon, that which is sufficient, i.e., "substantial bail".

of = from. Greek. para. App-104.

the other = the rest (plural) App-124.

let them go = released them as in Acts 16:35.


Verse 10

immediately. Greek. eutheos.

sent away. Greek. ekpempo. App-174. Only here and Acts 13:4.

by night = through (Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 17:1) the night.

Berea. About thirty miles to the W. Now Verria.

went. Gr apeimi. Only here. They were not deterred by their treatment at Thessalonica.


Verse 11

noble. Greek. eugenes = well born. Occurs here, Luke 19:121 Corinthians 1:26. Hence they were more courteous.

word. Greek. logos. App-121.

with. Greek. meta. App-104.

readiness of mind. Greek. prothumia. Only here, 2 Corinthians 8:112 Corinthians 8:122 Corinthians 8:192 Corinthians 9:2.

searched = examined. Greek. anakrind. App-122. Not the same word as in John 5:39.

daily. See Acts 16:5.

whether = if. App-118.

those = these.


Verse 12

believed. App-150.

honourable. Greek. euschemon. See note on Acts 13:50Mark 15:43.

men. Greek. aner. App-123.


Verse 13

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104.

had knowledge = got to know. Greek. ginosko. App-132.

God. App-98.

preached. Greek. katangello. App-121.

at = in. Greek. en.

and stirred up = stirring up. Greek. saleuo. Compare Acts 4:3Acts 16:26. The texts add "and troubling" as in Acts 17:8.


Verse 14

sent away. Greek. exapostello. App-174.

as it were. Greek. hos, but the texts read heos, as far as.

abode. Greek. hupomeno. Gen. translates "endure".


Verse 15

conducted. Greek. kathistemi. Only here in this sense. Generally translated "make", "appoint". Here the brethren made all the arrangements.

unto = as far as. Greek. heos.

receiving = having received.

for to = in order that (Greek. hina) they should.

with all speed = as quickly as possible. Greek. hos tachista. Only here.

departed. Greek. exeimi. See Acts 13:42.


Verse 16

waited. Greek. ekdechomai. Here, John 5:31 Corinthians 11:331 Corinthians 16:11Hebrews 10:13Hebrews 11:10James 5:71 Peter 3:20.

spirit. App-101.

stirred. Greek. paroxunomai. Only here and 1 Corinthians 13:5. A medical word. Compare Acts 15:39.

when he saw = beholding. Greek. theoreo. App-133.

wholly, &c. = full of idols. Greek. kateidolos. Only here.


Verse 17

disputed = was reasoning. Greek. dialegomai, as in Acts 17:2.

with. Greek. pros. App-104.

met with. Greek. . paratunchano. Only here.


Verse 18

philosophers, &c. = of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers. Only occurance of philosophos. The Epicureans were followers of Epicurus (342-279 B.C.) who held that pleasure was the highest good, while the Stoics were disciples of Zeno (about 270 B.C.) who taught that the supreme good was virtue, and man should be free from passion and moved by neither joy nor grief, pleasure nor pain. They were Fatalists and Pantheists. The name came from the porch (Greek. stoa) where they met.

encountered. Greek. sumballo. See note on Acts 4:15.

will, &c. = would this babbler wish (Greek. thelo. App-102.) to say.

babbler. Greek. spermologos = seed-picker. Only here. Used of birds, and so applied to men who gathered scraps of information from others.

other some = and some.

a setter forth = a proclaimer. Greek. katangeleus. Compare App-121. Only here. Compare the verb in verses: Acts 17:3Acts 17:13Acts 17:23.

strange = foreign. Greek. xenos. An adjective, but generally translated stranger, ("man" understood), as in Acts 17:21.

gods = demons. Greek. daimonion. Occurs sixty times, fifty-two times in the Gospels. Only here in Acts. Translated "devils" in Authorized Version and Revised Version (margin demons) except here.

preached. Greek. euangelizo. App-121.

resurrection. Greek. anastatis. App-178. They were accustomed to personify abstract ideas, as victory, pity, &c, and they may have thought that Jesus and the resurrection were two new divinities. One charge against Socrates was that of introducing new divinities.


Verse 19

took. Greek. epilambanomai. See note on Acts 9:27Acts 23:19.

Areopagus = the hill of Mars, or the Martian hill. Greek. Areios pagoa. Compare Acts 17:22. Where the great council of the Athenians was held.

May = Can.

know. Greek. ginosko, as in Acts 17:13.

new. Greek. kainos. See note on Matthew 9:17.

whereof, &c. = which is spoken (Greek. laleo. App-121.) by (Greek. hupo. App-104.) thee.


Verse 20

strange. Greek. xenizo, to treat as xenos (Acts 17:18), hence to lodge. See Acts 10:6Acts 10:18Acts 10:23Acts 10:321 Peter 4:41 Peter 4:12.

ears. Greek. akoe, hearing.

would = wish to. Greek. boulomai. App-102.

mean. Literally wish (Greek. thelo. App-102.) to be.


Verse 21

strangers. See verses: Acts 17:17Acts 17:18Acts 17:20.

were there = were dwelling or sojourning. Greek. epi-demeo. Only here and Acts 2:10.

spent their time. Greek. eukaireo, to have leisure. Only here, Mark 6:311 Corinthians 16:12.

in = for. Greek. eis. App-104.

nothing else = no other thing. Greek. oudeis heteros (App-124.)

new thing = newer thing, i.e. the latest idea. Greek. kainoteros. Comp. of kainos (Acts 17:19). Only here.


Verse 22

Mars" hill. See Acts 17:19.

Ye men of Athens. Greek. andres Aihenaioi. See note on Acts 1:11.

perceive. Same as "saw"Acts 17:16.

in = according to. Greek. kata. App-104.

too superstitious = more religiously disposed than others. Greek. deisidaimonesteros, comparative of deisidaimon, compound of deido (to fear) and daimon. Only here. The noun occurs in Acts 25:19. The Authorized Version rendering is too rude, and Paul had too much tact to begin by offending his audience. Figure of speech Protherapeia. App-6.


Verse 23

beheld. Greek. anatheoreo. App-133.

devotions = the objects of your worship. Greek. sebasma. Only here and 2 Thessalonians 2:4. Compare sebomai. App-137.

altar. Greek. bomos. Only here. Add "also".

with this, &c. = on (Greek. en) which had been inscribed. Greek. epigrapho. Only here, Mark 15:26Hebrews 8:10Hebrews 10:16Revelation 21:12.

UNKNOWN. Greek. agnostos. Only here. For type see App-48. Public or private calamities would suggest that some god whom they could not identify must be propitiated.

Whom. The texts read "what".

ignorantly = being ignorant. Greek. agnoeo.

worship. Greek. eusebeo. App-137.

him = This.

declare. Same as "preach" (Acts 17:3Acts 17:13). Note Paul"s skilful use of local circumstances.


Verse 24

world. Greek. kosmos. App-129.

therein = in (Greek. en) it.

seeing that He is = This One being essentially (Greek. huparcho. See note on Luke 9:48).

heaven. No art. See note on Matthew 6:9Matthew 6:10.

earth. Greek. ge. App-129.4.

dwelleth. See note on Acts 2:5.

temples = shrines. Greek. naos. See note on Matthew 23:16.

made with hands. See note on Acts 7:48. This is a direct quotation from Stephen"s speech.


Verse 25

worshipped. Greek. therapeuo. App-137.

with = by. Greek. hupo. App-104.

men"s. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

as though He needed = as needing. Greek. prosdeomai. Only here.

any thing = something. Greek. tis, as verses: Acts 17:4Acts 17:5.

seeing He giveth = Him-self giving.

life. Greek. zoe. App-170.

breath. Greek. pnoe. See note on Acts 2:2.


Verse 26

one blood. The texts omit "blood". The "one" here means either Adam, or the dust of which he was formed. One (Greek. heis) is sometimes used for a certain one (Greek. tis). See Matthew 8:19Matthew 16:14Mark 15:36Revelation 18:21Revelation 19:17.

all nations = every nation (Greek. ethnos).

determined. Greek. horizo. See note on Acts 2:23.

before appointed. Greek. protasso. Only here. But the texts read prostasso. Compare Acts 1:7 and see App-195.

bounds. Greek. horothesia. Only here.

habitation. Greek. katoikia. Only here. Compare "dwellers"Acts 2:5.


Verse 27

That they should seek = To seek.

the Lord. The texts read "God".

if. App-118.

haply = at least.

feel after = grope for. Greek. pselaphao. Only here, Luke 24:39Hebrews 12:181 John 1:1.

be. Greek. huparcho. See note on Luke 9:48. Compare "seeing" &c., Acts 17:24.

every = each. Figure of speech Association. App-6.


Verse 28

in = by. Greek. en. App-104.

have our being = are.

your own poets = the poets with (Greek. kata. App-104.) you. He refers to Aratus, who -was a native of Cilicia (about 270 B. C). Cleanthes (about 300 B.C.) has almost the same words. App-107.

also His offsprings = His offspring also.

offspring. Greek. genos. Translated kind, race, nation. kindred, &c. Offspring only here, Acts 17:29, and Revelation 22:16. Adam was by creation son of God. Genesis 1:27Genesis 2:7. See App-99and Luke 3:38. All mankind are descended from Adam, and in that sense are the posterity or offspring of God. That every child born into the world "comes fresh and fair from the hands of its Maker", and is therefore the direct offspring of God, is emphatically contradicted by John 1:13, where the One begotten of God is set in opposition to the rest of mankind who are begotten of the flesh and will of man.


Verse 29

Forasmuch . . . are = Being then. Greek. huparcho, as in verses: Acts 24:27.

think = reckon. Greek. nomizo. See note on Acts 14:19.

the Godhead. Greek. to theion. App-98.

graven = an engraving, or sculpture. Greek. charagma. Only here and eight times in Rev. of the mark of the beast. Compare charakter. Hebrews 1:3.

by = of.

art. Greek. techne. Only here, Acts 18:3Revelation 18:22.

device = thought. Greek. enthurnesis. Only here, Matthew 9:4Matthew 12:25Hebrews 4:12. Compare Acts 10:19.


Verse 30

And, &c. Literally The times indeed therefore of ignorance.

winked at; but = having overlooked. Greek. hupereidon. Only here.

now. Emphatic. See note on Acts 4:29.

commandeth. Greek. parangello. See note on Acts 1:4.

repent. App-111. Compare 2 Corinthians 5:19.


Verse 31

hath. Omit.

will = is about to.

judge. Greek. krino. App-122.1.

righteousness. Greek. dikaiosune App-191.

that = a

ordained. Same as "determined"Acts 17:26.

whereof, &c. = having afforded.

assurance. Greek. pistis. App-150.

in that He hath = having.


Verse 32

And, &c. = But having heard.

of the dead. Greek. nekron. App-139.

mocked = were mocking. Greek. chleuazo. See note on Acts 2:13. To Epicureans and Stoics alike a resurrection of dead persons was a madman"s dream. Only those whose "hearts the Lord opened" (Acts 17:34) could receive it. Compare Acts 16:14.

of = con erning. Greek. peri. App-104.


Verse 33

from among them = out of (Greek. ek App-104.) the midst of them.


Verse 34

Howbeit = But.

clave . . . and = having joined themselves. Greek. kollao. See note on Acts 5:13.

among. Greek. en. App-104.

Dionysius = Dionysius also.

Areopagita. A member of the Athenian assembly.

named = by name.

others. Greek. heteros, as in verses: Acts 7:21.

with. Greek. sun. App-104.


Chapter 18

Verse 1

Paul. Texts read "he".

departed. See Acts 1:1Acts 1:4.

to. Greek. eis. App-104. Probably in spring of A.D. 52. See App-180.

Corinth. At this time the political capital of Greece and seat of the Roman proconsul (Acts 18:12), as Athens was its literary centre. Its situation on an isthmus, with harbours on two seas, Lechaeum and Cenchreae, made it of great commercial importance, goods being transhipped and carried across the isthmus from one harbour to another, as was the case at Suez before the canal was made. Strabo says it was the chief emporium between Asia and Italy. The worship of Aphrodite (Latin Venus), the same as Ashtoreth (Judges 2:13), was carried on here, with all the Oriental licentiousness, probably introduced by the Phoenicians (1 Kings 11:33). Attached to the temple of Venus were one thousand courtesans. The word korinthiazomai, to act the Corinthian, was infamous in classical literature. These facts underlie and explain much in the Epistles to the Corinthians, e.g. 1 Corinthians 5:61 Corinthians 7:91 Corinthians 7:27; as also the fact that the renowned Isthmian games were held in the Stadium attached to the temple of Poseidon (Neptune), a short distance from the city. These games, as well as the temples of Athens, Corinth, and elsewhere, supplied Paul with many of the metaphors with which his writings abound.


Verse 2

found = having found.

certain. Greek. tis. App-123.

named = by name.

Aquila. See Romans 16:31 Corinthians 16:192 Timothy 4:19.

born, &c. = a Pontian by race.

lately. Greek. prosphatos. Only here. The adjective prosphatos, found in Hebrews 10:20, was common in medical writers.

with. Read "and".

Priscilla. Aquila is never mentioned apart from his wife. Both these are Latin names. Their Jewish names are not given,

because. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 18:2.

Claudius. This edict was issued early in A.D. 52 in consequence either of disturbances in Rome, caused by Jews, or of Judaea itself being almost in a state of rebellion.

unto = to.


Verse 3

of the same craft. Greek. homotechnos. Only here. A word applied by physicians to one another. The medical profession was called the healing art (Greek. techne).

abode = was abiding. See Acts 16:15.

wrought = was working. Greek. ergazomai.

by their occupation = as to their craft. Greek. techne.

tentmakers. Greek. skenopoios. Only here. They wove the black cloth of goat"s or camel"s hair of which tents were made. Every Jewish boy was taught some handicraft. Compare 1 Corinthians 4:121 Thessalonians 2:91 Thessalonians 4:112 Thessalonians 3:8. The Rabbis said, "Whoever does not teach his son a trade is as if he brought him up to be a robber. "


Verse 4

reasoned. Greek. dialegomai. See Acts 17:2Acts 17:17.

synagogue. App-120. In the museum at Corinth is a fragment of a stone with the inscription, (suna) goge hebr (aion) = synagogue of the Hebrews. The letters in brackets are missing. Its date is said to be between 100 B.C. and A.D. 200.

every sabbath = sabbath by sabbath. Compare Acts 15:21.

persuaded = was persuading, or sought to persuade. App-150.

the. Omit.

Greeks. Greek. Hellen. See Acts 14:1.


Verse 5

And = Now.

were come = came down.

was pressed, &c. Read, was engrossed with or by (Greek. en) the word, i.e. his testimony.

spirit. All thetexts read "word" (Greek. logos. App-121.10).

and testified = earnestly testifying. Greek. diamarturomai. See note on Acts 2:40.

Jesus. App-98.

was = is.

Christ = the Messiah. App-98. Compare 1 Corinthians 1:23. This was to the Jews a horrible "scandal".


Verse 6

oppossd themselves. Greek. antitassomai, to set in battle array. Elsewhere translated "resist"Romans 13:2. J as. Acts 4:6Acts 5:61 Peter 5:6.

shook. Greek. ektinasso. See note on Acts 13:51.

raiment = outer garments. Greek. himation. Compare Acts 12:8.

your own heads. Fig. Synecdoche. App-6. "Head" put for man himself.

clean = pure (Greek. katharos), i.e. free from responsibility. Compare Acts 20:26Ezekiel 3:17-21.

henceforth = now.

Gentiles. Greek. ethnos. i.e. in Corinth. See next verse. He still continued to go first to, the synagogues in other places. See Acts 19:8 and App-181.


Verse 7

Justus. Some texts read Titus, or Titius, Justus.

worshipped. Greek. sebomai. App-137.

God. App-98.

joined hard. Greek. sunomoreo. Only here.


Verse 8

Crispus. See 1 Corinthians 1:14.

chief, &c. Greek. archisunagogos. Here and Acts 18:17 translated chief ruler, &c. In all other places, ruler, &c. See note on Acts 13:15.

believed on. App-150.

believed. App-150.

baptized. App-115and App-185.


Verse 9

vision. Greek. horama. See note on Acts 7:31.

speak. Greek. laleo. App-121.

hold . . . thy peace = be. . . silent. Greek. siopao. Only here in Acts, ten times in the Gospels. This is the Figure of speech Pleonasm. App-6.


Verse 10

no man = no one.

set on thee = lay (hands) on thee.

hurt thee = do thee evil. Greek. kakoo. See note on Acts 7:6.

people. Greek. laos. Here nsed generally.


Verse 11

continued. Literally "sat". Figure of speech Synecdoche (of species). "Sit" used of a permanent condition.

a year and six months. In A.D. 52-53. During this period Paul wrote 1 Thess. (A.D. 52) and 2 Thess. (A.D. 53), and probably Hebrews. See introductory notes to these epistles and App-180.

word. Greek. logos. App-121.


Verse 12

when, &c. Literally Gallio being proconsul. Another instance of. Luke"s accuracy. Achaia was a senatorial province under Augustus, imperial under Tiberius, but after A.D. 44 restored by Claudius to the senate and therefore governed by a proconsul.

Gallio. Brother of Seneca, who was Nero"s tutor. Said to be an amiable and gracious man.

was the deputy. Greek. anthupateuo. Literally holding the office of proconsul (anthupatos). Only here. Some of the texts read anthupatou ontos, being proconsul. Compare Acts 13:7Acts 19:38.

made insurrection . . . against = rose up against. Greek. katephistemi. Only here. The verb ephistemi occurs Acts 17:5"assault".

with one accord. Greek. homothumadon. See note on Acts 1:14.

judgment seat. Greek. bema. See note on John 19:13. In the Athenian courts there were two other platforms, for the accuser and the accused.

This fellow = This one. persuadeth. Greek. anapeitho. Strong form of peitho (App-150.) Only here.

men. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

contrary to = against. Greek. para. App-104.


Verse 14

now. Omit.

open his mouth. Figure of speech Idioma. App-6. A Hebraism.

If = If indeed. Greek. ei. App-118.

a matter of wrong = an injustice. Greek. adikema. App-128.

wicked. Greek. poneros. App-128.

lewdness = recklessness. Greek. radiourgema. Only here. Compare Acts 13:10.

reason would = according to (Greek. kata. App-104.) reason (Greek. logos. App-121.)

that I should = I would.


Verse 15

a question. Greek. zetema. See note on Acts 15:2. The texts read "questions".

words = a word. Greek. logos. App-121.

your law = the law (that is) with (Greek. kata. App-104.) you.

look, &c. = look ye yourselves to it. Greek. opsomai. App-133.

for. Omit. will be no judge = will (Greek. boulomai. App-102.) not (Greek. ou. App-105.) be a judge (Greek. krites. Compare App-122and App-, 7, 8).

such = these.


Verse 16

drave. Greek. apelauno. Only here. They probably persisted in their charges and so the liotors were ordered to clear the court.


Verse 17

all the Greeks. The texts read, "they all".

Sosthenes. He had apparently succeeded Crispus (Acts 18:8). Compare 1 Corinthians 1:1.

bsat. The crowd, to whom the Jews were obnoxious, would be glad to second the work of the lictors.

Gallio, &c. Literally none (ouden) of these things was a concern to Gallio. He refused to interfere in behalf of such troublesome litigants.


Verse 18

tarried = stayed on. Greek. prosmeno. See note on Acts 11:23.

a good while = many days.

took his leave = having taken leave. Greek. apotasso, to set apart. Mid. withdraw. In N.T. always in Mid. Voice. Here, Acts 18:21Mark 6:46Luke 9:61Luke 14:332 Corinthians 2:13.

and sailed = sailed away. See note on Acts 15:39.

shorn. Greek. keiro. Occurs elsewhere, Acts 8:32, and 1 Corinthians 11:6. In the latter passage keiro, which means to "shear", and xurao, which means to "shave", both occur. Compare Acts 21:24.

Cenchrea. This was the port east of Corinth whence he would set sail.

vow. Greek. euche. App-134. Only here, Acts 21:23, and James 5:15. It has been questioned whether these words refer to Paul or to Aquila. The facts point to Paul, for whichever it was, the ceremonies connected with the vow could only be completed at Jerusalem, and while Paul was hastening his journey thither (Acts 18:21), Aquila appears to have remained at Ephesus (Acts 18:26).


Verse 19

he. The texts read "they".

came. Greek. katantao. See note on Acts 16:1.


Verse 20

desired = asked. Greek. erotao. App-134.

tarry. Greek. meno. See p. 1511.

longer time = for (Greek. epi. App-104.) more time.

consented. Greek. epineuo, to nod towards. Only here. Used in medical


Verse 21

bade them farewell. Greek. apotasso, as in Acts 18:18"took his leave. "

I must . . . Jerusalem. The texts omit this clause, but not the Syriac.

return. Greek. anakampto, bend back (my steps). Only here, Matthew 2:12. . Luke 10:6Hebrews 11:15.

if God will = God being willing (Greek. thelo. App-102.)

sailed. Greek. anago. See note on Acts 13:13.


Verse 22

when he had landed = having come down.

at = to. Greek. eis. App-104.

gone up, i.e. to Jerusalem. Figure of speech Ellipsis. App-6.

church. App-186.


Verse 23

after, &c. Literally having made. See Acts 15:33.

some time. Probably three months. It was from Antioch he had gone forth on his first missionary journey; it had happier associations for him than Jerusalem, where they were "all zealous of the law" (Acts 21:20).

country of Galatia. Not the province, but the district.

in order. Greek. kathexes. See note on Acts 3:24.

strengthening. Greek. episterizo. The texts read sterizo. See note on Acts 14:22.


Verse 24

Apollos. Shortened form of Apollonius.

eloquent. Greek. logios. Only here. The word may mean either "eloquent", or "learned". The latter idea is expressed in the next phrase.

man. Greek. anir. App-123.

mighty. Greek. dunatos. Said of Moses (Acts 7:22).


Verse 25

This man = This one.

instructed. Greek. katecheo. See notes on Acts 21:21Acts 21:24Luke 1:4Romans 2:18. Compare Engl, "catechise".

in = as to.

the way. See note on Acts 9:2.

fervent. Greek. zeo, to boil. Only here and Romans 12:11. His was burning zeal. Figure of speech Idioma. App-6.

spirit. App-101. Fervent in spirit means spiritually fervent, or exceedingly zealous.

diligently = accurately. Greek. akribos. Here Matthew 2:8Luke 1:3Ephesians 5:151 Thessalonians 5:2. The verb akriboo only in Matthew 2:7Matthew 2:16.

of = concerning (Greek. peri. App-104.)

the Lord. The texts read "Jesus".

knowing. Greek. epistamai. App-132.

baptism. Greek. baptisma. App-115.


Verse 26

he = this one.

speak boldly. Greek. parrhesiazomai. See note on Acts 9:27.

expounded. Greek. ektithemi. Set out before him. See note on Acts 7:21.

more perfectly = more accurately. Comp. of akribos, Acts 18:25.


Verse 27

"was disposed = wished. Greek. boulomai. App-102.

exhorting. Greek. protrepomai. Only here. According to the order in the Greek this refers to Apollos, and it should read, "the brethren, having encouraged him, wrote".

receive. Greek. apodechomai. See note on Acts 2:41.

helped. Greek. sumballo. See note on Acts 4:15.

through. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 18:1.

grace. App-184.


Verse 28

mightily. Greek. eutonos. Only here and Luke 23:10. A medical word.

convinced = confuted. Greek. diakatelenchomai. Only here.

publickly. Greek. demosia. See note on Acts 5:18.