Christian Churches of God

No. F042vi





Commentary on Luke

Part 6

(Edition 1.0 20220729-20220729)


Commentary on Chapters 21-24.



Christian Churches of God

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Commentary on Luke Part 6

Luke Chapters 21-24 (RSV)


Chapter 21

1He looked up and saw the rich putting their gifts into the treasury; 2and he saw a poor widow put in two copper coins. 3And he said, "Truly I tell you, this poor widow has put in more than all of them; 4for they all contributed out of their abundance, but she out of her poverty put in all the living that she had." 5And as some spoke of the temple, how it was adorned with noble stones and offerings, he said, 6"As for these things which you see, the days will come when there shall not be left here one stone upon another that will not be thrown down." 7And they asked him, "Teacher, when will this be, and what will be the sign when this is about to take place?" 8And he said, "Take heed that you are not led astray; for many will come in my name, saying, 'I am he!' and, 'The time is at hand!' Do not go after them. 9And when you hear of wars and tumults, do not be terrified; for this must first take place, but the end will not be at once." 10Then he said to them, "Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; 11there will be great earthquakes, and in various places famines and pestilences; and there will be terrors and great signs from heaven. 12But before all this they will lay their hands on you and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues and prisons, and you will be brought before kings and governors for my name's sake. 13This will be a time for you to bear testimony. 14Settle it therefore in your minds, not to meditate beforehand how to answer; 15for I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which none of your adversaries will be able to withstand or contradict. 16You will be delivered up even by parents and brothers and kinsmen and friends, and some of you they will put to death; 17you will be hated by all for my name's sake. 18But not a hair of your head will perish. 19By your endurance you will gain your lives. 20"But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its desolation has come near. 21Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, and let those who are inside the city depart, and let not those who are out in the country enter it; 22for these are days of vengeance, to fulfil all that is written. 23Alas for those who are with child and for those who give suck in those days! For great distress shall be upon the earth and wrath upon this people; 24they will fall by the edge of the sword, and be led captive among all nations; and Jerusalem will be trodden down by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. 25"And there will be signs in sun and moon and stars, and upon the earth distress of nations in perplexity at the roaring of the sea and the waves, 26men fainting with fear and with foreboding of what is coming on the world; for the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 27And then they will see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. 28Now when these things begin to take place, look up and raise your heads, because your redemption is drawing near." 29And he told them a parable: "Look at the fig tree, and all the trees; 30as soon as they come out in leaf, you see for yourselves and know that the summer is already near. 31So also, when you see these things taking place, you know that the kingdom of God is near. 32Truly, I say to you, this generation will not pass away till all has taken place. 33Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away. 34"But take heed to yourselves lest your hearts be weighed down with dissipation and drunkenness and cares of this life, and that day come upon you suddenly like a snare; 35for it will come upon all who dwell upon the face of the whole earth. 36But watch at all times, praying that you may have strength to escape all these things that will take place, and to stand before the Son of man." 37And every day he was teaching in the temple, but at night he went out and lodged on the mount called Olivet. 38And early in the morning all the people came to him in the temple to hear him.


Intent of Chapter 21

vv. 1-4 A poor widow gives all she has (Mk. 12:41-44)

v. 1 The treasury here refers to a container for the receipt of offerings; In John 8:20, it refers to a room in the Temple. v. 2 The copper coin (lepton) was of little monetary value (see 12:59 n), but of great spiritual significance because of its cost to the giver. God measures effort and sacrifice by relative standards. More is expected of the blessed and the poor are judged by what they can do rather than how much they do compared to the wealthy.

 (See also Love and the Structure of the Law No. 200).)


vv. 5-24 Jesus tells about the future (Mat. 24:1-22; Mk. 13:1-20),

Christ talks about the Church and its persecution from the Disciples onwards (see also Rev. 6:9-11 (F066ii). See also the Commission of the Church (No. 171); Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D); General Distribution of the Sabbath Keeping Churches (No. 122); Timeline of the Churches of God (F044vii); Role of the Fourth Commandment in the Historical Sabbath-keeping Churches of God (No. 170).


21:5-7 Destruction of the Temple Foretold

Mat. 24:1-3 (F040v); Mk. 13:1-2 (F041iv);

v. 5 see Mat. 24:1 n; v. 6 see Mk. 13:2 n.

v. 7 17:20; Acts 1:6.

Christ foretells of the Destruction of the Temple which occurred in 70 CE under the Sign of Jonah (see Sign of Jonah and the History of the Reconstruction of the Temple (No. 013); Daniel 9:24-27 (F027ix).


21:8-36 On the End of the Age

(Mat. 24:4-36; Mk 13:3-37.

v. 8:17:23; Mk. 13:21;1Jn. 2:18;

v. 10 2Chron. 15:6; Isa. 19:2;

21:12-17 Mat. 10:17-22;

v. 12 Acts 25:24; Jn. 16:2. v. 13 Phil. 1:12;


21:14-15 12:11-12; v. 16 12:52-53;

v. 17 Mat. 10:22; Jn. 15:18-25;

v. 18 12:7, Mat. 10:30; Acts 27:34; 1Sam.14:45;

v. 19 Gain your lives or be saved (Mk. 13:13; Mat. 10:22; and eat of the Tree of Life in the paradise of God (Rev. 2:7) (F066i).

See Completion of the Sign of Jonah (No. 013B).


21:20-22 19:41-44; 2:28-31; 17:31

v. 24 Rom. 11:25 (F045iii); Isa. 63:18; Dan. 8:13 (F027viii); Rev. 11:2 (F066iii).

The Times of the Gentiles finish at the End of the Age thirty years from the 120th Jubilee, as detailed in the texts in (No. 013B) in order that the full number of the Gentiles come in to the kingdom of God. Then the Empire of the Beast takes up over the end of the 30 years ruling for 42 months only to be destroyed by the Messiah in the 43rd month at his return (see also 20:16; Mk. 13:10; Rom. 11:25; F027xii, xiii;


vv. 25-33 Jesus tells about his return (Mat. 24:23-35; Mk. 13:21-31) see also (No. 141E).

v. 25 Rev. 6:12-13 (F066ii); Isa. 13:10; Jl. 2:10 Zeph. 1:15.

v. 27 Dan. 7:13-14 (F027vii);

v. 28 Redemption  2:38; Eph. 4:30;

v. 33 16:17.


vv. 34-38 Jesus tells about remaining watchful (Mat. 24:36-51; Mk. 13:32-37)

v. 34 8:14; 12:22, 45; Mk. 4:19; 1Thes. 5:6-7;

v. 36 Mat. 7:21-23; Mk. 13:33; 2Cor. 5:10;

v. 37 Mat. 21:17; Mk. 11:19; Lk. 19:47;

v. 38 See Jn. 7:52 n and RSV n.    

See also Advent of the Messiah 210A and 210B

The world will resist the Messiah (see also No. 141E_2).


Chapter 22

1Now the feast of Unleavened Bread drew near, which is called the Passover. 2And the chief priests and the scribes were seeking how to put him to death; for they feared the people. 3Then Satan entered into Judas called Iscariot, who was of the number of the twelve; 4he went away and conferred with the chief priests and officers how he might betray him to them. 5And they were glad, and engaged to give him money. 6So he agreed, and sought an opportunity to betray him to them in the absence of the multitude. 7Then came the day of Unleavened Bread, on which the passover lamb had to be sacrificed. 8So Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the passover for us, that we may eat it." 9They said to him, "Where will you have us prepare it?" 10He said to them, "Behold, when you have entered the city, a man carrying a jar of water will meet you; follow him into the house which he enters, 11and tell the householder, 'The Teacher says to you, Where is the guest room, where I am to eat the passover with my disciples?' 12And he will show you a large upper room furnished; there make ready." 13And they went, and found it as he had told them; and they prepared the passover. 14And when the hour came, he sat at table, and the apostles with him. 15And he said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer; 16for I tell you I shall not eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God." 17And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he said, "Take this, and divide it among yourselves; 18for I tell you that from now on I shall not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes." 19And he took bread, and when he had given thanks he broke it and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me." 20And likewise the cup after supper, saying, "This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood. 21But behold the hand of him who betrays me is with me on the table. 22For the Son of man goes as it has been determined; but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed!" 23And they began to question one another, which of them it was that would do this. 24A dispute also arose among them, which of them was to be regarded as the greatest. 25And he said to them, "The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and those in authority over them are called benefactors. 26But not so with you; rather let the greatest among you become as the youngest, and the leader as one who serves. 27For which is the greater, one who sits at table, or one who serves? Is it not the one who sits at table? But I am among you as one who serves. 28"You are those who have continued with me in my trials; 29and I assign to you, as my Father assigned to me, a kingdom, 30that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 31"Simon, Simon, behold, Satan demanded to have you, that he might sift you like wheat, 32but I have prayed for you that your faith may not fail; and when you have turned again, strengthen your brethren." 33And he said to him, "Lord, I am ready to go with you to prison and to death." 34He said, "I tell you, Peter, the cock will not crow this day, until you three times deny that you know me." 35And he said to them, "When I sent you out with no purse or bag or sandals, did you lack anything?" They said, "Nothing." 36He said to them, "But now, let him who has a purse take it, and likewise a bag. And let him who has no sword sell his mantle and buy one. 37For I tell you that this scripture must be fulfilled in me, 'And he was reckoned with transgressors'; for what is written about me has its fulfilment." 38And they said, "Look, Lord, here are two swords." And he said to them, "It is enough." 39And he came out, and went, as was his custom, to the Mount of Olives; and the disciples followed him. 40And when he came to the place he said to them, "Pray that you may not enter into temptation." 41And he withdrew from them about a stone's throw, and knelt down and prayed, 42"Father, if thou art willing, remove this cup from me; nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done." *43And there appeared to him an angel from heaven, strengthing him.l *44And being in agony he prayed more earnestly; and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down upon the ground.l 45And when he rose from prayer, he came to the disciples and found them sleeping for sorrow, 46and he said to them, "Why do you sleep? Rise and pray that you may not enter into temptation." 47While he was still speaking, there came a crowd, and the man called Judas, one of the twelve, was leading them. He drew near to Jesus to kiss him; 48but Jesus said to him, "Judas, would you betray the Son of man with a kiss?" 49And when those who were about him saw what would follow, they said, "Lord, shall we strike with the sword?" 50And one of them struck the slave of the high priest and cut off his right ear. 51But Jesus said, "No more of this!" And he touched his ear and healed him. 52Then Jesus said to the chief priests and officers of the temple and elders, who had come out against him, "Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs? 53When I was with you day after day in the temple, you did not lay hands on me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness." 54Then they seized him and led him away, bringing him into the high priest's house. Peter followed at a distance; 55and when they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter sat among them. 56Then a maid, seeing him as he sat in the light and gazing at him, said, "This man also was with him." 57But he denied it, saying, "Woman, I do not know him." 58And a little later some one else saw him and said, "You also are one of them." But Peter said, "Man, I am not." 59And after an interval of about an hour still another insisted, saying, "Certainly this man also was with him; for he is a Galilean." 60But Peter said, "Man, I do not know what you are saying." And immediately, while he was still speaking, the cock crowed. 61And the Lord turned and looked at Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said to him, "Before the cock crows today, you will deny me three times." 62And he went out and wept bitterly. 63Now the men who were holding Jesus mocked him and beat him; 64they also blindfolded him and asked him, "Prophesy! Who is it that struck you?" 65And they spoke many other words against him, reviling him. 66When day came, the assembly of the elders of the people gathered together, both chief priests and scribes; and they led him away to their council, and they said, 67"If you are the Christ, tell us." But he said to them, "If I tell you, you will not believe; 68and if I ask you, you will not answer. 69But from now on the Son of man shall be seated at the right hand of the power of God." 70And they all said, "Are you the Son of God, then?" And he said to them, "You say that I am." 71And they said, "What further testimony do we need? We have heard it ourselves from his own lips."

[Footnote: l Other ancient authorities omit verses 43 and 44]


Intent of Chapter 22

The Feast of the Passover 30 CE

The details and the Significance of the Passover were given in the Commentary on Matthew (F040vi).  The timing of the Passover is detailed in the text Timing of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection (No. 159). (Mat. 26:1-27:66; Mk. 14:1-15:47; Jn. 13:1-19:42).

vv. 1-2 Religious leaders plot to kill Jesus (Mat. 26:2-5; Mk. 14:1-2; Jn. 11:47-53).

The leaders, as can be seen from the previous chapters, were planning to kill Messiah for some time. This Passover, in accordance with prophecy, they acted and sought an accomplice.


vv. 3-6 Judas agrees to betray Jesus (Mat. 26:14-16; Mk. 14:10-11; Jn. 13:2); v. 5 Mat. 26:15 n.

Judas agreed to betray Christ as indeed was foretold.


vv. 7-13 Disciples prepare for the Passover (Mat. 26:17-19; Mk. 14:12-16).

v. 7 Ex. 12:18-20; Deut. 16:5-8.

v. 10 There was some prior signalling to protect the location from the authorities. A man carrying a jar of water was unusual and no doubt it was to identify and protect the location of the domicile in which they were staying.   

v. 11 The identity of the householder is unknown see Mk. 14:51 n).

v. 12 The upper room was on the second floor probably served from an outside staircase.

22:14-23; Mat. 26:20-29; Mk. 14:17-25; Jn. 13:21-30.


On the day of 13 Abib, before 14 Abib began at EENT or dark on Tuesday evening 4 April 30 CE the apostles entered the building reserved for them as temporary accommodation under the law (Deut. 16:5-8), and began preparation for the Passover sacrifice the following day which was to occur at 3pm 14 Abib, or Wednesday 5 April 30 CE, for the Passover meal that evening after EENT on 5 April. See the Passover (No. 098). All these events took place under the determinations of the Temple Calendar (see (No. 156)), which were all in place at that time and determined in the astronomical schools. It was never done by observation, except away from the Temple on travel, three days prior to the event by observation of the Waning Moon reflected on water in a dish. The modern Jewish or Hillel Calendar with its postponements, and based on the Babylonian intercalations brought in from Babylon in 344 CE, and released by Hillel II in 358 CE, were still centuries off into the future and they were never kept by the church over the two millennia until it was introduced to the Churches of God in the 1940s. Since then the Churches of God keeping Hillel, and the Jews since they abandoned the Temple Calendar by ruses after 70 CE, have never kept a holy day on the correct days except by accident and some 30% of the time not even in the correct months (see also No.195; 195B; 195C; 195D). The Witnesses and then Christ and the Host will stamp the practice out by the jubilee year at his return, along with all who will not repent. So also Sunday (111 CE) and the festival of Easter and the death of the god Attis on the Friday/Sunday Resurrection was not to intrude for over a hundred years and then in Rome from 154-192 which caused a schism in the churches under the Quartodeciman Disputes (No. 277).

These heresies will all be stamped out and the perpetrators will all be killed, unless they repent at the Return or before under the Witnesses (Amos 9:8-11 (F030); Isa. 6:9-13; Zech. 12:8; 14:16-19).


vv. 14-30 Jesus and the disciples have the Last Supper (Mat. 26:20-29; Mk. 14:17-25; Jn. 13:21-30);  v 14. The hour – of the meal after dark.

v. 15 12:49-50; v. 16 Jesus here establishes the Second Sacrament of the church which had been established by him in the procedures given to Moses at Sinai (Acts 7:30-53; 1Cor. 10:1-4). This was the renewal of the Covenant of God (No. 152) into the Kingdom (13:28-29; 14:15; 22:28-30). v. 17 the prayers over the bread and wine established the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper in the church for all time. 

v. 19 1Cor. 11:23-26; v. 21 Ps. 41:9; Jn. 13:21-30;

22:24-30 Mat. 20:25-28; Mk. 10:42-45;

v. 24 9:46; Mk. 9:34; Jn. 13:3-16;

v. 25 Benefactors a title bestowed on Hellenistic kings. v. 26 see Mk. 9:35 n.

v. 28 My trials  4:13; Heb. 2:18;  4:15;

v. 29 Mk. 14:25; Heb. 9:20;

v. 30 Mk. 10:37; Rev. 3:21; 20:4.


This meal was not the Passover meal but the preparation meal or chegigoh meal which established the Second Sacrament of the Church (No. 150), (the first being Baptism (No. 052). That was The Lord’s Supper (No. 103) with Footwashing (No. 099) and Bread and Wine (No. 100).  This was not the Passover meal, as it was eaten with a sop. The Passover meal must be roasted (Ex. 12:6-10).


Christ was killed at the exact time the first Passover lamb was killed and the Passover was eaten on the night beginning 15 Abib. The Bread taken on the Lord’s Supper was unleavened from that time onwards, as it was a commemorative sacrifice or offering, and under the law that must be unleavened. The wine was and must always be fermented wine, from Christ’s statements and the historical practice of the Churches of God over two millennia, and can never be grape juice, despite some 20th century aberrations (see also Wine in the Bible (No. 188)). 


22:31-38 Jesus predicts Peter’s denial (Mat. 26:33-35; Mk. 14:29-31; Jn. 13:37-38).

v. 31 Job 1:6-12;

v. 34 vv. 54-62;  v. 35 10:4;

v. 36 The sword seemingly meant to Jesus that the elect were to be prepared to live by one’s own resources against hostility.  The disciples assumed each must be armed, but it was enough to have two swords (v. 38).  v. 37 Isa. 53:12.


22:39-46 Jesus agonizes in the garden (Mat. 26:30, 36-46; Mk. 14:22, 32-42).

v. 39 Jn. 18:1-2; v. 41   Heb. 5:7-8; Lk. 11:4;

v. 42 Cup That which is allotted by God, whether blessings (Ps. 16:5; 116:13) or judgment (Isa. 51:17; Lam. 4:21). Here it refers to Christ’s suffering and death (Mat. 20:22; Mk. 10:38).


22:43-44 It is probable that these verses were not part of the original Gospel of Luke since important early manuscripts lack them, MSS of the Second century contain them and reflect tradition from the first century concerning the suffering of Christ (see Oxf. RSV n.)

v. 43 Mat. 4:11; Acts 12:15 n.

v. 44 2Cor. 8:9; Phil. 2:6-8; Heb. 2:9, 17-18; 4:15; 5:8; 1Pet. 2:21-24; 4:1.


vv. 47-53 Jesus is betrayed and arrested (Mat. 26:47-56; Mk. 14:43-52; Jn. 18:3-11).

v. 47 Mat. 26:50 n; v. 52 Only Luke says that the prospect of arresting Jesus had attracted the leaders of the Levitical (termed Jewish) priests  (Mat. 26:47,57; Mk. 14:43; Jn. 18:3).  


22:54-71 Jesus before Caiaphas

vv. 54-65 Peter denies knowing Jesus (Mat. 26:69-75; Mk. 14:66-72; Jn. 18:25-27).

vv. 54-55 Jn. 18:12-16;

vv. 56-62 Jn. 18:16-18, 25-27;

v. 59 See Mat. 26-73 n; v. 61 7:13, 22-34;

vv. 63-65 Jn. 18:22-24.


vv. 66-71 The council of religious leaders condemns Jesus (Mat. 27:1-2 n; (F040vi); Mk. 15:1) (F041iv); Jn. 18:25-27; (F043v)

v. 66 Mat. 27:1 n.


vv. 69-71 The Last Days at the End of the Age

From the Mouth of Christ at his trial.

The final preparation in the last days sees the Shaking of Israel as the people of God. Amos 9:8-11 shows that God’s eyes are on the sinful kingdom and people, and foretells its destruction, except that God will not utterly destroy the house of Jacob. There will be a shaking of Israel all over the world, but not a pebble will fall upon the earth, or be lost. All sinners in Israel shall die by the sword; those who say that evil shall not overtake us. In that day God will raise up the booth of David that is fallen and repair its breaches and rebuild it as in the days of old. (cf. also Isa. 6:9-13; Zech 12:8). The remnant will be the Holy Seed. This will be the First Resurrection (No. 143A) and Valley of Dry Bones (No. 234) at the return of Messiah and the living physical remnant for the millennial system in the Kingdom of God (see  Wars of the End Part IV: End of False Religion (No. 141F); Wars of the End Part IV(b): End of the Age (No.141F_2); Wars of the End Part V: Restoration for the Millennium (No.141G); The Golden Jubilee (No. 300); Wars of the End Part V(b): Preparing the Elohim (No. 141H)).


Chapter 23

1Then the whole company of them arose, and brought him before Pilate. 2And they began to accuse him, saying, "We found this man perverting our nation, and forbidding us to give tribute to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ a king." 3And Pilate asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?" And he answered him, "You have said so." 4And Pilate said to the chief priests and the multitudes, "I find no crime in this man. 5But they were urgent, saying, "He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, from Galilee even to this place." 6When Pilate heard this, he asked whether the man was a Galilean. 7And when he learned that he belonged to Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him over to Herod, who was himself in Jerusalem at that time. 8When Herod saw Jesus, he was very glad, for he had long desired to see him, because he had heard about him, and he was hoping to see some sign done by him. 9So he questioned him at some length; but he made no answer. 10The chief priests and the scribes stood by, vehemently accusing him. 11And Herod with his soldiers treated him with contempt and mocked him; then, arraying him in gorgeous apparel, he sent him back to Pilate. 12And Herod and Pilate became friends with each other that very day, for before this they had been at enmity with each other. 13Pilate then called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people, 14and said to them, "You brought me this man as one who was perverting the people; and after examining him before you, behold, I did not find this man guilty of any of your charges against him 15neither did Herod, for he sent him back to us. Behold, nothing deserving death has been done by him; 16I will therefore chastise him and release him." 17*[ m No text] 18But they all cried out together, "Away with this man, and release to us Barabbas"-- 19a man who had been thrown into prison for an insurrection started in the city, and for murder 20Pilate addressed them once more, desiring to release Jesus; 21but they shouted out, "Crucify, crucify him! 22A third time he said to them, "Why, what evil has he done? I have found in him no crime deserving death; I will therefore chastise him and release him." 23But they were urgent, demanding with loud cries that he should be crucified. And their voices prevailed. 24So Pilate gave sentence that their demand should be granted. 25He released the man who had been thrown into prison for insurrection and murder, whom they asked for; but Jesus he delivered up to their will. 26And as they led him away, they seized one Simon of Cyre'ne, who was coming in from the country, and laid on him the cross, to carry it behind Jesus. 27And there followed him a great multitude of the people, and of women who bewailed and lamented him. 28But Jesus turning to them said, "Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves and for your children. 29For behold, the days are coming when they will say, 'Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bore, and the breasts that never gave suck!' 30Then they will begin to say to the mountains, 'Fall on us'; and to the hills, 'Cover us.' 31For if they do this when the wood is green, what will happen when it is dry?" 32Two others also, who were criminals, were led away to be put to death with him. 33And when they came to the place which is called The Skull, there they crucified him, and the criminals, one on the right and one on the left. 34And Jesus said, "Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do." And they cast lots to divide his garments. 35And the people stood by, watching; but the rulers scoffed at him, saying, "He saved others; let him save himself, if he is the Christ of God, his Chosen One!" 36The soldiers also mocked him, coming up and offering him vinegar 37and saying, "If you are the King of the Jews, save yourself!" 38There was also an inscription over him, "This is the King of the Jews. 39One of the criminals who were hanged railed at him, saying, "Are you not the Christ? Save yourself and us!" 40But the other rebuked him, saying, "Do you not fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation? 41And we indeed justly; for we are receiving the due reward of our deeds; but this man has done nothing wrong." 42And he said, "Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom." 43And he said to him, "Truly, I say to you, today, you will be with me in Paradise." 44It was now about the sixth hour, and there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour, 45while the sun's light failed; and the curtain of the temple was torn in two. 46Then Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said, "Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit!" And having said this he breathed his last. 47Now when the centurion saw what had taken place, he praised God, and said, "Certainly this man was innocent!" 48And all the multitudes who assembled to see the sight, when they saw what had taken place, returned home beating their breasts. 49And all his acquaintances and the women who had followed him from Galilee stood at a distance and saw these things. 50now there was a man named Joseph from the Jewish town of Arimathe'a. He was a member of the council, a good and righteous man, 51who had not consented to their purpose and deed, and he was looking for the kingdom of God. 52This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. 53Then he took it down and wrapped it in a linen shroud, and laid him in a rock-hewn tomb, where no one had ever yet been laid. 54It was the day of Preparation, and the sabbath was beginning. 55The women who had come with him from Galilee followed, and saw the tomb, and how his body was laid; 56then they returned, and prepared spices and ointments. On the sabbath they rested according to the commandment.

[Footnote: mHere, or after verse 19, other authorities add verse 17, Now he was obliged to release one man to them at the festival.]


Intent of Chapter 23

vv. 1-5 Jesus stands trial before Pilate (Mat. 27:1-5; 11-14; Mk. 15:1-5; Jn. 18:28).

v. 1 Mat. 27:1-2; Mk. 15:1; Jn. 18:28;

v. 2 20:25 The charge is phrased to sound like treason.

v. 3 Mat. 27:11-12; Mk. 15:2-3; Jn. 18:29-38; Lk. 22:70; v. 4 23:14; 22:41; Mat. 27:24; Jn. 19:4, 6; Acts 13:28; Pilate refused to take religious ideas in a criminal political sense. Luke’s text shows that Pilate sought to free Jesus but yielded at length to Jewish pressure.


vv. 6-12 Jesus stands trial before Herod Antipas

Herod was the son of Herod the Great (3.1 n). This episode is reported only by Luke. 

v. 8  9:9; Acts 4:27-28;  v. 9 Mk. 15:5;

v. 11 Mk. 15:17-19; Jn. 19:2-3;

vv. 13-25 Pilate hands Jesus over to be executed (Mat. 27:15-26; Mk. 15:6-15; Jn. 18:39; Jn. 19:16);  v. 14 vv. 4, 22, 41;  v. 16 Jn. 19:12-14;

23:18-25 Mat. 27:20-26; Mk. 15:11-15; Jn 18:38-40; 19:14-16; Acts 3:13-14.


23:26-56 The Execution

vv. 26-31 Jesus is led away to be executed

(Mat. 27:32-34; Mk. 15:21-24; Jn. 19:17);

v. 26 Mat 27:32 n; Mk. 15:21 n; Jn. 19:17.

vv. 28-32 21:23-24; 19:41-44;

v. 30 Hos. 10:8; v. 31 considered a proverbial saying referring to the fact that if they did this to the innocent Christ what will be the coming fate of the guilty Jerusalem (v. 28). Comp. 1Pet. 4:17-18.


vv. 32-43 Jesus is placed on the stake (Mat. 27:33-44; Mk. 15:22-32; Jn. 19:17-27)

v. 34 Num. 15:27-31; Acts 7:60; Ps. 22:18;

v. 35 4:23;

v. 36 Ps. 69:21; see Mat. 27:48 n; Mk. 15:23;

v. 41 vv. 4, 14, 22;

v. 42 Perhaps the charges against Jesus prompted the robber’s appeal to him (vv. 2, 3, 38) thinking in terms of 21:27-28. He was promised more than he asked indicating the power of the Kingdom was really among them and not future (Mat. 6:10). Paradise, like Abraham’s Bosom (6:22), was a term used in Judah for the lodging place of the dead awaiting the Resurrection (see Eccl. 12:7) (see also Oxf. RSV n).

v. 43 Rev. 2:7 (see also 2Cor. 12:3 for Paul’s anecdotal comment). The text has been misconstrued by the Gnostics to justify their false doctrines of heaven and hell. There are two elements to the comment. Christ said: “I say to you today, you will be with me in paradise.” The Gnostic Antinomians misplace the comma in the English. There is none in the Greek. From v. 42 n above, the Jewish tradition was that the nephesh of the dead goes back to God who gave it (Eccl. 12:7). In that sense they referred to it as “paradise”.


vv. 44-49 Jesus dies on the stauros or stake (Mat. 27:45-56; Mk. 15:33-41; Jn. 19:25-30).

v. 44 Mat. 27:45 n; v. 45 Ex. 26:31-35; Heb. 9:8, 10:19-20 The sun’s light failed see note re n.  r on Oxf. RSV which states: The translation is uncertain: r or the sun was eclipsed, other ancient authorities read the sun was darkened. The sun was darkened is the probable rendering.

v. 46 Ps. 31:5; v. 48 This popular public remorse fulfills prophecy at Zech. 12:10.

v. 49 8:1-3; 23:55-56; 24:10; Ps. 38:11;

Christ was killed on a stauros which is a sharpened stake invented by the Phoenicians for capital punishment.  The Romans did not add the crosspiece to it until many years after Christ died.

The effigy of Attis was carried around Rome on an equilateral Sun Cross and this gave rise to the cross myth in Rome (see The Cross: Its Origin and Significance (No. 039)). The Greek texts of the Bible do not contain any word that conveys a cross, and only the word stauros (SGD 4716) is used, meaning a stake (from SGD 2476). The Greek word translated as crucified is stauroo (SGD 4717) meaning to impale on a stauros. The other word used is Sustauroo (from 4862 and 4717) meaning to impale on a stauros in company with others (Mat. 27:44; Mk. 15:32; Jn. 19:32; Gal. 21:20). See also Acts 2:23 for Prospegnumi (SGD 4362; from 4314 and 4078) meaning to fasten to a stake and misused as “crucify.” Heb. 6:6 uses SGD 388 anastauroo (from 303 and 4717 meaning to re-impale on a stauros and translated as crucify afresh, which is incorrect.  A stauros is no more a cross than a stick is a crutch, as Bullinger also states. Frazer records that by the Fourth Century the priests of Attis were complaining that the “Christians” in Rome had stolen all their doctrines, which they indeed had done.

vv. 50-56 Jesus is laid in the tomb (Mat. 27:57-61; Mk. 15:42-47; Jn. 19:38-42; Acts 13:29).

Joseph of Arimathea was a member of the council of the Sanhedrin. The texts say he was a disciple of Christ, but the truth is far more important. He was a metals trader with Britain, and he was the brother of Heli (Lk. 3:23) father of the virgin.  He was granted the body of Christ to dispose of in burial because he was the oldest male relative of the Messiah. Normally executed felons were burnt in Gehenna outside of Jerusalem, but Pilate made this exception and allowed him to be buried as Joseph’s family. Joseph’s daughter Ana was married to Bran king of the Britons. Bran was called the blessed because he was married to the cousin of the mother of Christ. The history has been faithfully maintained by the Welsh (see Ashley M., Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, Carroll and Graf, New York, 1998/9 re notes on Bran and Joseph); see also No. 232). It is in Britain that the majority of the living Desponyini, or the Family of Christ, reside (232 ibid). Joseph’s grandson-in-law was Arviragus king of the Silurians in Britain. Arviragus’ nephew Linus ap Caradog was one of the Seventy ordained by Christ and he became first bishop of Rome. Arviragus gave Joseph and Linus the twelve hides of land at Glastonbury for the church there, and Aristobulus ordained with Linus by Christ went there as its first bishop in Britain (see Establishment of the Church under the Seventy (No. 122D).

v. 51 council The Sanhedrin (see also Jn. 11:47 n);

v. 52 Mat. 27:58; v. 53 Acts 13:29;

v. 54 The Sabbath That Sabbath was the First Holy Day of Unleavened Bread which began that evening (Wednesday 5 April 30 CE) at EENT or dark and was not the weekly Sabbath, as the priests of the Sun Cults of the Goddess Easter would have the world believe (cf. Timing of the Crucifixion and Resurrection (No. 159)).

On no day in the entire week of this year or in nearby following years did 14 Abib fall on a Friday. It fell on Thursday in 33 CE and hence postponements were invoked by the later Athanasians in Rome to claim a Friday death in that year but the timing is completely erroneous. However, Hillel had not been issued until 358 CE by Hillel II, and postponements did not exist in the Temple period (see God’s Calendar No 156)). The Calendar was calculated in the astronomical schools years in advance, as Philo clearly states (ibid). The festival of the Israelite and Anglo-Saxon goddess Easter (from Ishtar, or Ashtoreth, consort of Baal), as adopted by Trinitarian Christianity, stems from the sun cult myths of the worship of the god Attis in Rome (see Origins of Christmas and Easter (No. 235); The Quartodeciman Disputes (No. 277); and also God’s Calendar (No. 156)). v. 56 Mk. 16:1; Ex. 12:16; 20:10. See Passover (No. 098).


Chapter 24

1But on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they went to the tomb, taking the spices which they had prepared. 2And they found the stone rolled away from the tomb, 3but when they went in they did not find the body. 4While they were perplexed about this, behold, two men stood by them in dazzling apparel; 5and as they were frightened and bowed their faces to the ground, the men said to them, "Why do you seek the living among the dead? 6Remember how he told you, while he was still in Galilee, 7that the Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and on the third day rise." 8And they remembered his words, 9and returning from the tomb they told all this to the eleven and to all the rest. 10Now it was Mary Mag'dalene and Jo-an'na and Mary the mother of James and the other women with them who told this to the apostles; 11but these words seemed to them an idle tale, and they did not believe them. 12*[No text v13That very day two of them were going to a village named Emmaus, about seven miles from Jerusalem, 14and talking with each other about all these things that had happened. 15While they were talking and discussing together, Jesus himself drew near and went with them. 16But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 17And he said to them, "What is this conversation which you are holding with each other as you walk?" And they stood still, looking sad. 18Then one of them, named Cle'opas, answered him, "Are you the only visitor to Jerusalem who does not know the things that have happened there in these days?" 19And he said to them, "What things?" And they said to him, "Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people, 20and how our chief priests and rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 21But we had hoped that he was the one to redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since this happened. 22Moreover, some women of our company amazed us. They were at the tomb early in the morning 23and did not find his body; and they came back saying that they had even seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. 24Some of those who were with us went to the tomb, and found it just as the women had said; but him they did not see." 25And he said to them, "O foolish men, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! 26Was it not necessary that the Christ should suffer these things and enter into his glory?" 27And beginning with Moses and all the prophets, he interpreted to them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself. 28So they drew near to the village to which they were going. He appeared to be going further, 29but they constrained him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is toward evening and the day is now far spent." So he went in to stay with them. 30When he was at table with them, he took the bread and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to them. 31And their eyes were opened and they recognized him; and he vanished out of their sight. 32They said to each other, "Did not our hearts burn within us while he talked to us on the road, while he opened to us the scriptures?" 33And they rose that same hour and returned to Jerusalem; and they found the eleven gathered together and those who were with them, 34who said, "The Lord has risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon!" 35Then they told what had happened on the road, and how he was known to them in the breaking of the bread. 36As they were saying this, Jesus himself stood among them. 37But they were startled and frightened, and supposed that they saw a spirit. 38And he said to them, "Why are you troubled, and why do questionings rise in your hearts? 39See my hands and my feet, that it is I myself; handle me, and see; for a spirit has not flesh and bones as you see that I have." 40*[No text y41And while they still disbelieved for joy, and wondered, he said to them, "Have you anything here to eat?" 42They gave him a piece of broiled fish, 43and he took it and ate before them. 44Then he said to them, "These are my words which I spoke to you, while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the law of Moses and the prophets and the psalms must be fulfilled." 45Then he opened their minds to understand the scriptures, 46and said to them, "Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer and on the third day rise from the dead, 47and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be preached in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem. 48You are witnesses of these things. 49And behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you; but stay in the city, until you are clothed with power from on high." 50Then he led them out as far as Bethany, and lifting up his hands he blessed them. 51While he blessed them, he parted from them, and was carried up into heaven. 52And they returned to Jerusalem with great joy, 53and were continually in the temple blessing God.

[Footnote: v Other ancient authorities add verse 12, But Peter rose and ran to the tomb; stopping and looking in, he saw the linen cloths by themselves; and he went home wondering at what had happened.]

[Footnote: y Other ancient authorities add verse 40, And when he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.]


Intent of Chapter 24

vv. 1-12 Jesus rises from the dead (Mat. 28:1-10; Mk. 16:1-8; Jn. 20:1-9, 11-18).

The prophecies point to this event, as by this event all the creation was to be saved (see the Plan of Salvation (No. 001A)).

v. 1 Mk. 16:1; v. 2 Mk. 16:3 n; v. 4 Mk. 16:5 n.

v. 6. 9:22; 13:32-33; You here includes more of the Seventy, and perhaps others of the 500. 

v. 9 Mat. 28:8 n; Mk. 16:8;

v. 10   Mk. 16:1; Lk. 8:1-3; Jn. 19:25; 20:2.

v. 12 This verse, though appearing in valuable ancient manuscripts, appears to be an addition to the original text of Luke based on John 20:3-10.  It reads: But Peter rose and ran to the tomb; stooping and looking in, he saw the linen cloths by themselves; and he went home wondering at what had happened.  


24:13-35 Jesus appears to two believers travelling on the Road (Mk. 16:12-13) See Forty Days Following Christ’s Resurrection (No. 159A).

v. 16 Mat. 16:17 n; Jn. 20:14; 21:4. Here they perceived what he appeared to be but they did not recognise it was the Messiah.

v. 19 Mat. 21:11; Lk. 7:16; 13:33; Acts 3:22; 10:38; v. 25 Mk. 12:24; v. 26 Necessary because of God’s Plan of Salvation (No. 001A).

v. 27 Moses, to whom Christ gave the law at Sinai (Acts 7:30-53; 1Cor. 10:1-4).  The prophets were also given the prophecy of God and who foretell the coming of the Messiah both in the First and Second Incarnations (No. 210A and 210B) (v. 44 n: Mat. 5:17 n; Acts 28:23).

All teaching must be according to the law and the testimony (Isa. 8:20). The elect are the saints who keep the Commandments of God and the Faith and Testimony of Christ (Rev. 12:17; 14:12).

v. 28 Mk. 6:48; v. 30 Mk. 6:41; 14:22; Lk. 9:16; 22:19; v. 34 Mk. 16:7; 1Cor. 15:5 Peter’s experience is not described.


Commissioning of the Disciples

24:36-43 Jesus appears to the disciples behind locked doors (Jn. 20:19-23; 1Cor. 15:5). The experience with the Messiah in v. 36 is thought of as an apparition (v. 37) but rejected in v. 39.


vv. 44-49 Jesus appears to the disciples in Jerusalem

v. 44 (vv. 26-27; Acts 28:23);

The Law and the Prophets and the Psalms are the major elements of the prophecies concerning the Messiah.  He also included this element of psalms in the law in Jn. 10:34-36 and said Scripture could not be broken.

v. 45 24:32; v. 46 Hos. 6:2; 1Cor. 15:3-4;

v. 47 Acts 1:4-8; Mat. 28:19; v. 48 1:2; Acts 1:8;

v. 49 Acts 2:1-4; Jn. 14:26; 20:21-23. These words refer to the power of the Holy Spirit as stated in Jl. 2:28-32 (comp. Acts 2:1-21). This action began the New Age but the power was yet to be fully experienced. 


vv. 50-53 Jesus ascends into heaven (Mk. 16:19-20);  v. 51 Acts 1:9-11;  vv. 52-53 Acts 1:12-14

Christ ascended to heaven as the Wave Sheaf Offering (No. 106B) at 9 AM on Sunday 9 April 30 CE and returned that evening and then after completing the Forty Days Following Christ’s Resurrection (No. 159A) (which included the visit to the demons in Tartaros) he ascended into heaven and was seated on the Right Hand of God (see No. 177 and No. 178 (cf. also Commentary on Hebrews (F058)).




Bullinger’s Notes on Luke Chs. 21-24 (for KJV)


Chapter 21

Verse 1

And He looked up , &c. The Lord was still in the Temple, showing that this prophetic discourse is not the same as that spoken later on the Mount of Olives. They are similar to Luke 21:11 , when the Lord goes back and speaks of what shall happen "before all these things". See App-165 .

looked up . Greek. anablepo. App-133 .

saw . Greek. eidon. App-133 .

into . Greek. eis. App-104 .

the treasury . See note on Matthew 24:1 and Mark 12:41 . Compare John 8:20 .


Verse 2

also a certain poor widow = a certain poor widow also.

poor . Greek. penichros = one who works for daily bread. Occurs only here.

mites . Greek. lepta. See App-51 .

Verse 3

more . As a matter of proportion.


Verse 4

of = out of. (Greek. ek. App-104 .

unto . Greek. eis, as in Luke 21:1 .

offerings = gifts. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for the chest containing them.

God. See App-98 .

penury = lack, or want.

living = livelihood. Greek. hies. App-170 .


Verse 5

of = about. Greek. peri. App-104 .

the temple . Greek. hieron. See note on Matthew 23:18 .

gifts = dedicated gifts. Greek. Plural of anathema. Occurs only here. Compare Josephus, Bell. Jud. V. 5 4.


Verse 6

behold = are gazing at. Greek. theoreo. App-133 . in. Greek. en. App-104 .

one stone upon another = stone upon (Greek. epi. App-104 .) stone.

not. Greek. ou. App-105 .


Verse 7

they : i.e. "the some" of Luke 21:5 . Not any of the Apostles. See App-155 .

Master = Teacher. See App-98 . Luke 21:1 .

when . . . what? Note the two questions here, and the three on the later occasion. See App-155 .

sign = the sign. Greek. to semeion. App-176 .

shall come to pass? = may be about to take place?


Verse 8

And He said , &c. See App-155 .

Take heed . Greek. blepo. App-133 .

not . Greek. me. App-105 .

deceived = misled.

for many , &c. This was speedily fulfilled. It was the first sign as to "when" (Luke 21:7 ). Compare 1 John 2:18 , "the last hour. "

in . Greek. epi. App-104 .

time = season.

draweth = has drawn.


Verse 9

commotions = unrest. Occurs only here, and 1 Corinthians 14:33 . 2 Corinthians 6:5 ; 2 Corinthians 12:20 . James 3:16 .

be not terrified = be not scared. Greek. ptoeo. Occurs only here and Luke 24:37 .

first . See the Structure, above.

the end. Greek. totelex. Not the sunteleia. Compare Matthew 24:3 and Matthew 24:14 ,

by and by = immediately. As in Matthew 24:6 , "not yet", Mark 13:7 . Compare Luke 17:7 . Matthew 14:31 .Mark 6:25 . See App-155 .


Verse 10

Then said He , &c. Matthew 24:7 , Matthew 24:8 . Mark 13:8 . Nation, &c. Quoted from Isaiah 19:2 .

against . Greek. epi. App-104 .


Verse 11

in divers . Greek. kata. App-104 .

famines, and pestilences . Greek. limoi kai loimoi. Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ), for emphasis, like Eng. "dearths and deaths". fearful sights = things that fill with fear. Greek. Plural of phobetron. Occurs only here, but in Septuagint Isaiah 19:17 . In medical language = objects imagined by the sick.

signs . Greek. semeion. App-176 .

from . Greek. apo. App-104 .

heaven . Singular. No Art. See note on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .


Verse 12

before all these. The Lord goes back, here, instead of continuing, as in Matthew 24:8 , Matthew 24:9 , and Mark 13:9 . See App-155 .

before . Greek. pro. App-104 .

on = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104 .

before = up to. Greek. epi. App-104 .


Verse 13

turn = turn out.

for . Greek. eis. App-101 .

a testimony . Compare Philippians 1:1 , Php 1:28 . 2 Thessalonians 1:8 .


Verse 14

in . Greek. eis. App-104 . meditate. Compare Luke 12:11 .Matthew 10:19 , Matthew 10:20 .

answer . Compare 1 Peter 3:15 .


Verse 15

a mouth and wisdom . Note the Figure of speech Hendiadys ( App-6 ) = a mouth, yea, a wise mouth. Mouth, too, put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for what is spoken by it. Compare Exodus 4:11 , Exodus 4:12 .Jeremiah 1:9 . Isaiah 6:7 .

to gainsay, &c. See Acts 4:14 ; Acts 6:10 .


Verse 16

betrayed = delivered up.

by . Greek. hupo. App-104 .

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ), for emphasis.

of = from among. Greek. ek. App-104 .


Verse 17

of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104 .

for = on account

of. Greek. dia. App-104 .Luke 21:2 .


Verse 18

not = by no means. Greek ou me. App-105 .

hair , &c. Compare Matthew 10:30 .


Verse 19

patience = patient endurance.

possess ye = ye shall possess. Occurs only here, and Luke 18:12 .Matthew 10:9 . Acts 1:18 ; Acts 8:20 ; Acts 22:28 . 1 Thessalonians 4:4 .

souls = lives. App-110 .


Verse 20

Jerusalem. This is the point of the Lord's prophecy, in Luke. There is nothing of this in Matthew or Mark. See App-155 .

with = by. Greek. hupo. App-104 .

know = get to know. App-132 .

is nigh = has drawn near.


Verse 21

it = her.

countries = fields.

thereinto = into (Greek. eis. App-104 .) her.


Verse 22

vengeance. Quoted from Hosea 9:7 . See Daniel 9:26 , Daniel 9:27 ; and Josephus, Bell. Jud. v. 10.

all things which are written . These and no more nor less. As in Acts 3:21 .

are written = have been, and stand written.

fulfilled . As in Luke 21:24 .

Not the same word as in Luke 21:32 .


Verse 23

in = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

land. Greek. ge. App-129 .

wrath . See 1 Thessalonians 2:16 .

upon = among. Greek. en. App-104 . But all the texts read "to".


Verse 24

And . Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ), for emphasis.

edge = mouth (Genesis 34:26 m.)

led away captive . Josephus speaks of 1,100,000 slain and 97,000 taken away to Egyptian mines and elsewhere (Bell. lad. vi. 9).

trodden down . Not the future tense of the verb (pateo), but the future of the verb "to be", with the Pass. Part, of pateo = shall be and remain trodden down, in a way that it had never been before. The reference is to the Mohammedan possession since A.D. 636 in succession to the "fourth" or Roman possession. See note on Daniel 2:40 .

Gentiles = nations, as in preceding clause.

until , &c. So that a day is coming when the nations will cease to tread it down, and it will be possessed by its rightful owner-Israel.

the times : i.e. the times of the Gentile possession of Jerusalem.


Verse 25

And. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ), for emphasis.

And there shall be , &c. The Lord here passes over the intervening present dispensation, and takes up the yet future time of the end, enlarged on later in Matthew 24:29-31 .Mark 13:24-27 .

upon . Greek. epi. App-104 .

earth . Greek. ge. App-129 . Not the same as in Luke 21:26 ; but the same as "land" in Luke 21:23 .

with . Greek. en. App-104 .

the sea, &c. Compare Psalms 46:3 .Isaiah 5:30 . Revelation 17:15 .


Verse 26

Men's . Greek. anthropos. App-123 .

failing = fainting. Greek apopsucho. Occurs only here. Luke used three compounds of the simple verb ( psucho, Matthew 24:12 ), all peculiar to him: e.g. "cool", Luke 16:24 ; "gave up the ghost", Acts 5:5 , Acts 5:10 ; Acts 12:23 .

for = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

looking after = expectation. Greek prosdokia, from the verb prosdokeo. App-133 .

earth = the inhabited earth. Greek. oikoumene. App-129 .

the powers , &c. App-172 . Probably refers to the angelic world rulers. See notes on Daniel 10:13 .

heaven = the heavens. See note on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .

shall be shaken. Compare Matthew 11:7 . Mat 6:38 . Acts Luke 4:31 .Hebrews 12:26 , Hebrews 12:27 .


Verse 27

see . Greek. opsomai. App-133 .

the Son of man . App-98 .

with . Greek. meta. App-104 .


Verse 28

look up . Greek. anakupto = watching with outstretched neck. Occurs only here, Luke 13:11 , and John 8:7 , John 8:10 .

for = because.

redemption = deliverance from the tribulation. See Zechariah 14:1-4 .


Verse 29

Behold = Look

ye . App-133 . Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .


Verse 30

now = already.

shoot forth = sprout.

ye see and know = seeing (Greek. blepo. App-133 .) ye get to know. Greek. ginosko. App-132 .

of = from [experience]. Greek. apo. App-104 .


Verse 31

So likewise ye = so ye also.

come = coming.

the kingdom of God. See App-114 .


Verse 32

Verily . See note on Matthew 5:18 . This generation. See note on Matthew 11:16 .

till all be fulfilled = till (Greek. eos an) all may possiblyto pass. (Not the same word as "fulfilled" in Luke 21:24 .) Had the nation repented at Peter's call, in Acts 2:38 ; Acts 3:19-26 , "all that the prophets had spoken" would have come to pass.


Verse 33

Heaven = the heaven. shall pass away. Compare Psalms 102:26 . Isa 51:6 . 2 Peter 3:7 , 2 Peter 3:10 .

words = utterances. Greek. p1. of logos. See note on Mark 9:32 . Compare Isaiah 40:8 .


Verse 34

hearts. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part), App-6 , for the whole person.

overcharged = weighed down. Greek. baruno. Only here. Compare Luke 9:32 . 2 Corinthians 5:4 .

surfeiting . Greek. kraipale. A medical word used for the nausea after drunkenness, from which is the Latin crapula. Occurs only here. The English is from the Old French surfait or sorfait = excess.

drunkenness . Greek. methe. Occurs only here, Romans 13:13 .Galatians 1:5 , Galatians 1:21 .

cares . See note on Matthew 6:25 , " drunkenness "of to-day; "cares" for tomorrow.

of this life . Greek. biotikos = of or belonging to bios. App-170 .

come = should come.

upon . Greek. epi. App-104 .

unawares = suddenly. Greek. aiphnidios. Occurs only here, and 1 Thessalonians 5:3 .


Verse 35

as a snare . Compare Ecclesiastes 9:12 .Isaiah 24:17 .


Verse 36

Watch . See on Mark 13:33 .

and pray = praying.

always = sin (Greek. en. App-104 .) every season.

shall come to pass = are about to come to pass. stand. See Psalms 1:5 .Malachi 3:2 .


Verse 37

And in the day time = by day, A parenthetic statement referring to His custom during these last six days. See App-156 . abode -used to lodge.

in = into: i.e. into its protecting shelter. Occurs only here, and Matthew 21:17 .


Verse 38

came early in the morning. Greek. orthrizo. Occurs only here. Supply the Relative Ellipsis thus: "[rising] early in the morning, came".

to . Greek. pros. App-104 .


Chapter 22

Verse 1

Now, &c. Compare Matthew 26:17-19 . Mark 14:12-16 .

drew = was drawing.

passover . Aramaic, pascha. App-94 .


Verse 2

sought = were seeking. Contemporaneously with the Feast.

kill Him = get rid of, or make away with Him. Greek. anaireo = take up and carry off.

for, &c. Therefore their aim was to take Him secretly, and evade a public trial.


Verse 3

Satan . See note on Matthew 4:10 .

into. Greek. eis. App-104 .

Judas . . . the twelve . See App-141 .

of . Greek. ek. App-104 .


Verse 4

went his way . . . and = having gone away.

captains = officers of the Levitical Temple guards. Compare Jeremiah 20:1 .Acts 4:1 .

betray Him = deliver Him up.


Verse 5

glad = rejoiced. Because that promised to solve their difficulty.

covenanted = agreed.


Verse 6

he promised . For his part. See notes on Proverbs 16:1 , Proverbs 16:9 , Proverbs 16:33 .

opportunity. Implying the difficulty.

in the absence of = without. Greek. ater. Occurs only here, and Luke 22:35 .

the multitude = a crowd.


Verse 7

came = came near; for the prepara tion had not yet been made. See App-156 .

the day . The 15th of Nisan. This was only the 10th.

passover . Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for the Lamb. Aramaic. See note on Luke 22:1 .


Verse 8

eat = eat [it]: not the Lamb, but the Feast = the Chagigah.


Verse 9

wilt . Greek. thelo. App-102 .


Verse 10

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

man. Greek anthropos. App-123 . An unusual sight. They have met many men carrying wine-skins, and women carrying pitchers, but not a man carrying a "pitcher".


Verse 11

goodman = the master of the house. App-98 .

The Master = The Teacher. App-98 . Luke 22:2 .

with . Greek meta. App-104 .


Verse 12

he = that one.

a large , &c. Probably the same room of Acts 1:18 with Acts 2:1 .

furnished = strewed with divans and cushions.


Verse 13

as = even as.


Verse 14

And when, &c. Compare Matthew 26:20 . Mark 14:17 .

was come = had come to pass: i.e. had arrived.

sat down (Greek. anapipto) = reclined.

apostles . This is supplementary. Matthew and Mark have "the twelve" only.

with. Greek. sun. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 22:22 , Luke 22:59Luke 22:59 ; but the same as in Luke 22:56 .


Verse 15

unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .

With desire I have desired = I have earnestly desired. Figure of speech Polyptoton ( App-6 ). See note on Gcn. Luk 26:28 .

this passover . Not the eating of the Lamb, but the Chagigah or feast which preceded it = this [as) a Pass-over.


Verse 16

not = by no means. Greek. ou me. App-105 .

thereof = of (Greek. ek. App-104 .) it.

it be fulfilled = it may be fulfilled. Which it would have soon been, had the nation repented.

in . Greek. en. App-104 .

the kingdom of God . See App-114 .


Verse 17

cup. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of the Subject), App-6 , for the wine in it.


Verse 18

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

the fruit = the produce: i.e. the wine (gennema, not karpos = fruit).

shall come = may have come.


Verse 19

And He , &c. Compare Matthew 26:26-29 . Mark 14:22-26 . 1 Corinthians 11:23-25 .

bread. A thin flat hard biscuit, which was broken, and not cut.

gave thanks . Greek. eucharisteo.

This is My body . See App-159 .

is given = is being given.

for = on your behalf. Greek. huper. App-104 .

in = for. Greek. eis. App-104 .

in remembrance , &c. = for My memorial.


Verse 20

also the cup = the cup also. after. Greek. meta. App-104 . new. Greek kaine. See Matthew 9:16 , Matthew 9:17 .

testament = covenant. Greek. diatheke. See notes on Hebrews 9:14-23 . Blood has nothing to do with a "will" or "testament", but it has with a covenant. for. Greek. eis. App-104 .


Verse 21

betrayeth Me = is delivering Me up. The first warning.

on . Greek. epi. App-104 . 1.


Verse 22

the Son of man. See App-98 .

as = according as. Greek kata. App-104 .

was determined = has been determined. See Acts 2:23 ; Acts 3:18 ; Acts 4:27 , Acts 4:28 . Greek. dia. App-104 .Luke 22:1 .


Verse 23

among. Greek. pros. App-104 .

should do = was about to do.


Verse 24

there was = there happened.

also a strife = a strife also.

a strife = a love of dispute. Greek philoneikia. Occurs only here.

among . Greek. en. App-104 .

greatest = greater.


Verse 25

Gentiles = nations.

exercise lordship = lord it. Greek. kurieuo.

exercise authority . Greek. exousiaco. Compare App-172 .

benefactors . See note on Matthew 20:26 .


Verse 26

not . Greek. ou. App-106 .

is chief = the leader. serve. See note on "minister" (Matthew 20:26 ). Compare Philippians 1:2 , Philippians 1:7 .


Verse 27

sitteth = reclineth,

among = in the midst of.

Verse 28

temptations = trials.


Verse 29

appoint = assign.

as = even as. Father. App-98 .


Verse 30

at. Gr epi. App-104 .


Verse 31

the Lord. See App-98 . B.C.

Simon, Simon. The sixth example of this Figure of speech Epizeuxis ( App-6 ). See note on the first (Genesis 22:11 ).

Satan . See note on Matthew 4:10 .

hath desired = hath demanded. Greek. exciteo. Occurs only here in N.T. It means to obtain by asking. you. Plural.

sift. Greek. siniazo = to sift (as wheat), to get rid of the corn. Occurs only here. The Lord "winnows "to get rid of the chaff. Compare Matthew 3:12 . Pet. Luke 5:8 , Luke 5:9 .


Verse 32

prayed. Greek. deomai. App-134 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 22:40 , Luke 22:4 , Luke 22:44 , Luk 40:46 .

for = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .

thee . Simon. thy faith. Not Simon himself.

not. Greek. me. App-105 .

when thou , &c. - thou, when thou hast once turned again.

strengthen = establish. Compare 1 Peter 5:10 .


Verse 33

Lord. App-98 . A.

to = into. Greek. eis, as "into" prison. App-104 .


Verse 34

Peter. The Lord addressed him as such, only here, and Matthew 16:18 , to remind him of his weakness. See App-147 . He mentions him in Mark 16:7 .

the cock = a cock. See App-160 .

crow. See App-173 , and note on Matthew 26:34 . this day-to-day. Greek. semeron.

knowest . Greek. oida. App-132 .


Verse 35

When I sent, &c. See on Luke 9:2 , Luke 9:3 .

and . Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton ( App-6 ).

scrip. See note on Matthew 10:10 .


Verse 37

is written = standeth written. See Isaiah 53:12 ,

among = with. Greek. meta. App-104 .

concerning . Greek. peri. App-104 .


Verse 38

But now , &c. Showing that precepts given when the kingdom was being proclaimed, no longer held good when it had been rejected.

no sword = not [money]. Greek. me. App-105 .

one = a sword.


Verse 39

as He was wont = according to (Greek. kata. App-104 .) [His] custom.

disciples. The eleven.


Verse 40

the place. Gethsemane =oil-press.

Pray. Greek. proseuchomai. App-134 . Not the same word as in Luke 22:32 .


Verse 41

he = He Himself.

was withdrawn = was parted. Greek apospao. Only here; Matthew 26:51 .Acts 20:30 ; Acts 21:1 .

from . Greek. apo. App-104 .


Verse 42

if, &c. See App-118 .

Thou be willing . -it be Thine intention. Compare App-102 .

will = desire. Greek. thelema. Compare App-102 . Verses Luk 43:44 are omitted or marked as doubtful by most texts, but the Syriac includes them. See App-94 . note.


Verse 43

appeared. App-106 . an

angel. As after the Temptation (Matthew 4:11 ).

heaven . Singular, without the Art. See Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .

strengthening. Greek. enischuo. Occurs only here, and Acts 9:19 .


Verse 44

being = becoming. Implying in creasing intensity,

an agony . Greek. agenia. Occurs only here. more earnestly. Only here.

was = became.

to = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

ground = earth. Greek. ge. App-129 .


Verse 45

to. Greek. pros. App-104 .

for = from. Greek. apo. App-104 . Verses 47-53. Compare Matthew 26:47-56 . Mark 14:43-52 .


Verse 47

yet spake = was yet speaking.

multitude = crowd.

went = was going. Jesus. See App-98 .


Verse 48

betrayest thou = deliverest thou up.


Verse 49

about = around. Greek. peri. App-104 . saw. Greek. eidon. App-133 .

would follow = was about to happen.

with. Greek en. App-104 .


Verse 50

the servant . The well-known servant Malchus (John 18:10 ).


Verse 51

healed him. Added by Luke. See on Luke 6:17 .


Verse 52

chief priests . The heads of the twenty-four courses.

temple. Greek. hieron. See note on Matthew 23:16 .

to = against. Greek. epi. App-104 .

against. Same as "to", above.

a thief = a brigand, or robber. See note on Luk 27:38 , and App-164 .


Verse 53

no = not. App-105 .

your hour, &c. = your hour [and the hour of] the authority ( App-172 ) of darkness. See 2 Chronicles 1:132 Chronicles 1:13 ; and compare Hebrews 2:14 .


Verse 54

took = seized. Verses Luke 22:54-60 . Compare Luk 26:57-75 .Mark 14:53-72 .

followed = was following.


Verse 55

kindled = lighted. Greek. hapto. Only in Luke 8:16 ; Luke 11:33 ; Luke 15:8 .

hall = court.


Verse 56

a certain maid See App-160 .

beheld = saw, as in Luke 22:49

by = at. Greek. pros. App-104 .

fire = light App-130 .

earnestly looked . App-133 .

This man was also = This one also was


Verse 58

another = different one. Greek. heteros. App-124 .

thou art also = thou also art.


Verse 59

another = a certain other (Greek. altos. App-124 .) See App-160 .

Of = Upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .


Verse 60

immediately = on the spot. Greek. parachrema. See Luke 1:64 .

yet spake = was yet speaking. App-160


Verse 61

and looked . He was bound; and to speak aloud was out of the question, looked upon Greek. emblepo. App-133 .

word . Greek. logos. See note on Mark 9:32 .


Verse 62

out = outside.


Verse 63

the men. Greek. p1. of aner. App-123 . Not thesame word as in Luke 22:10 .

mocked = were mocking. Greek. empaizo. Compare Luke 18:32 .

and smote = smiting.


Verse 64

blindfolded = covered. Greek. perikalupto. Only here; Mark 14:65 .Hebrews 9:4 .

the face. Still covered.

asked = kept asking. App-134 .


Verse 65

other = different. App-124 .

spake = said.

against = to. Greek. eis. App-104 .


Verse 66

was = became.

the elders = the assembly of the elders, as in Acts 22:5 .

and, &c. Read "both chief priests and scribes". There are no Articles.

council. Greek. sunhedrion.


Verse 67

Art thou = lf thou art, &c. The condition assumed. See App-118 .

the Christ = the Messiah. App-98 .

If I tell you. Implying "which I do not". App-118 .

believe. App-150 .


Verse 68

I also ask you = I ask [you] also.


Verse 69

Hereafter = From (Greek. apo. App-104 .) henceforth, as in Luke 1:48 ; Luke 5:10 . John 1:51 .

sit = be seated.

on = at. Greek ek. App-104 .

power . Greek. dunamis. App-172 .

God . App-98 .


Verse 70

the Son of God. App-98 .

ye say, &c. A Hebraism, denoting a strong affirmation.


Verse 71

What need , &c. = Why have we still need of testimony?

have heard = heard.


Chapter 23

Verse 1

multitude. Greek. plethos = number (not ochlos = crowd). In the usage of the Papyri it denotes an assembly.

unto . Greek. epi. App-104 .


Verse 2

We found . As the result of our examination.

perverting = agitating. Not the same word as in Luke 23:14 . Compare Luke 9:41 .

Christ = Messiah. App-98 .


Verse 3

asked = questioned.

the King. Pilate using the Art., as

though implying hisbelief.

thou sayest. A Hebraism for a strong affirmation. Compare Luke 22:70 , &c.


Verse 4

to. Greek. pros. App-104 .

people = crowds. I find no fault, &c. Compare Matthew 27:4 .

in. Greek. en. App-104 .

Man. Greek. anthropos. App-123 .


Verse 5

were the more fierce = kept insisting. Greek. epischuo. Occurs only here in N.T.

stirreth up = instigates. Greek.

anaeeio. Stronger than "pervert "in Luke 23:2 . Occurs only here, and Mark 15:11 .

throughout. Greek. kata. App-104 .

from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

Galilee. See App-169 .


Verse 6

of Galilee = Galilee [mentioned].

whether = if. App-118 .


Verse 7

knew = got to know. Greek.

ginosko. App-132 .

belonged unto = was of. Greek. ek. App-104 .

jurisdiction = authority. App-172 .

sent. Greek. anapempo. App-174 , only here; verses: Luke 23:11 , Luke 23:15 ; Philemon 1:12 ; and (ace, to texts) Acts 25:21 .

at = in Greek en. App-104 .

that time = those days: i.e. of the Feast.


Verse 8

saw. Greek. eidon. App-133 .

Jesus . App-98 .

desirous = wishing. Greek thelo. App-102 .

of. Greek ek. App-104 .

because he had heard = on account of (Greek. dia. App-104 . ) his hearing.

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .

hoped = was hoping (all that long time).

miracle = sign. See App-176 .

done = accomplished.

by . Greek. hupo. App-104 .


Verse 9

questioned . Greek. erotao. App-134 .

words . Plural of logos. See note on Mark 9:32 .


Verse 10

stood = had stood.

vehemently. Greek. eutonos. Occurs only here, and Acts 18:28 .


Verse 11

with . Greek. sun. App-104 .

set Him at nought = treated Him with contempt. mocked. See Luke 22:63 .

gorgeous = resplendent. Compare Acts 10:30 . Revelation 15:6 .


Verse 12

were made = became.


Verse 13

together = with (Greek. meta. App-104 .) one another.

between = with reference to. Greek. pros. App-104 .

Verses 13-25. Compare Matthew 27:15-26 . Mark 15:6-13 .


Verse 14

unto. Greek. pros. App-104 .

perverteth = turneth away. Greek apostrepho. Not the same word as in Luke 23:2 .

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

examined. Greek. anakrino. App-122 .


Verse 15

No, nor yet = nor even.

lo. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

is done = has been done. Compare Luke 23:41 .

unto Him : i.e. by Him.


Verse 16

I will , &c. Probably with his own hands (Compare Luke 23:22 .Matthew 27:26 . Mark 15:15 ) instead of crucifying Him; with the view of releasing Him.

chastise . Compare Isaiah 53:5 .


Verse 17

at . Greek. kata. App-104 .

the = a. Most texts omit this verse.


Verse 18

all at once = all together, or in a mass. Greek. pamplethei. Occurs only here.

Barabbas . Aramaic ( App-94 .) = son of a (distinguished) father. ORIGEN (A.D. 186-253) read "Jesus, Barabbas" in Matthew 27:17 , the choice lying between two of the same name.


Verse 19

for = on account of. Greek. dia. App-104 .Luke 23:3 .

sedition = insurrection.

made = which had taken place.

murder . Compare Acts 3:14 .

was = had been. into. Greek. eis. App-104 .


Verse 20

willing = wishing. Greek thelo. App-102 .

spake . . . to = addressed. Greek. prosphoneo. Compare Acts 21:40 ; Acts 22:2 .


Verse 21

cried = kept shouting. Greek. epiphoneo.


Verse 22

said = spake. evil. Greek kakos. App-128 .


Verse 23

were instant = were urgent. Greek. epikeimai, to press upon. Compare Luke 7:4 .Judges 16:16 . Acts 26:7 . Romans 12:12 . 2 Timothy 4:2 .

requiring. App-134 . = had power to bear down (Pilate's remonstrance).


Verse 24

gave sentence = pronounced sentence. Greek. epikrino. App-122 . Occurs only here.

it, &c. = their request should be carried out.


Verse 25

had desired. Same word as "require" in Luke 23:23 .

will = desire. Greek. thelema. Compare App-102 .


Verse 26

And as, &c. Compare Matthew 27:31-34 .Mark 15:20-23 .

laid hold upon. Compare Acts 16:19 ; Acts 17:19 ; Acts 18:17 ; Acts 21:30-33 .

out of. Greek. apo. App-104 .

the country = a field. the cross. See App-162 ,


Verse 27

And there, &c.: verses: Luke 23:27-32 , peculiar to Luke. company multitude.

bewailed and lamented = were beating their breasts and lamenting.


Verse 28

Daughters , &c. Not therefore the women from Galilee of verses: Luke 23:49 , Luke 23:55 . Greek. me. App-105 .

for = on, or over. Greek. epi. App-104 .

children. Greek. Plural of teknon. App-108 .


Verse 29

Blessed = Happy. See note on Matthew 5:3 , and Compare Luke 11:27 . Hosea 9:12-16 .

never bare = did not (Greek. ou. App-105 ) bear.


Verse 30

on. Greek. epi. App-104 .

hills . Greek. Plural of bounds. Occurs only here and in Luke 3:5 .


Verse 31

if they do . Assuming the case. App-118 .

do = are doing.

a green tree = the

living wood: i.e. the Lord.

shall be done = must happen.

the dry = the dry [wood]: i, e. the nation.


Verse 32

also two other = others also, two.

other = different ones. Greek. Plural of heteros. App-124 .

malefactors = evildoers. Greek. kakourgoi. Not lestai = brigands, as in Matthew 27:38 . See App-164 .

led with Him. The brigands were brought later.


Verse 33

to . Greek. epi. App-104 .

Calvary is the Greek for the Hebrew Golgotha = a skull. Now called "a hill". But see Conder's Jerusalem, p. 80.

crucified . See App-162 .

on = at. Greek. ek. App-104 .

and the other = and one.

left. Greek. aristeros. Only here, Mat 6:3 . 2 Corinthians 6:7 . Not the same word as in Matthew 27:38 .


Verse 34

Father . See App-98 .

forgive them. The last of eight recorded occasions of prayer in Luke. See note on Luke 3:21 , and compare Matthew 27:46 for the last "seven words" on the cross. Compare Isaiah 53:12 .

know . Greek. oida. App-1 .Luke 3:2 , Luke 3:11 .

not . Greek. ou. App-105 .

do = are doing. Compare Acts 3:17 . 1 Corinthians 2:8 .


Verse 35

beholding = looking on, or gazing at. Greek theoreo. App-133 . Not the same word as in Luke 23:29 .

derided = were mocking: i.e. turning up their noses at Him. Same word as in 16. is. Compare Psalms 2:4 ; Psalms 22:7 ; Psalms 35:16 .

others. Greek. allos. App-124 . Not the same word as in Luke 23:32 ; Luke 23:40 .

he = This fellow.

Christ = the Messiah. App-98 .

God. App-98 .


Verse 36

coming = coming up close.

offering, &c . See note on Matthew 27:33 ; Matthew 27:48 .


Verse 38

superscription . Not the same word as in Matthew and John. See App-163 .

over. Greek. epi. App-104 .

THIS IS, &c. See App-48 for this type; and App-163 for the words themselves.


Verse 39

railed = kept up a railing.

Christ. The Lewis Codex of the Syriac Gospels recently found at Mount Sinai reads "Saviour", not Messiah. save Thyself and us. This reads (in the same Codex), "save Thyself alive this day, and us also".


Verse 40

condemnation . App-177 .6.


Verse 41

receive = are receiving.

our deeds = what we did.

hath done = did.


Verse 42

Lord. Most Texts omit this, but not the Syriac which reads "my Lord". App-98 . A.

comest = shalt have come.

into = in (Greek. en), but some texts with Syriac read "into ": i.e. into possession of.


Verse 43

I say unto, thee, To day = "I say unto thee to day".

To day . Connect this with "I say", to emphasize the solemnity of the occasion; not with "shalt thou be". See the Hebraism in note on Deuteronomy 4:26 . As to the punctuation, see App-94 .; and as to the whole clause, see App-173 . with. Greek. meta. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 23:11 , Luke 23:32 , Luke 23:35 .

paradise = the paradise: i.e. the one well known to Scripture. See note on Ecclesiastes 2:5 . Ecc 2:44 Verses 44-46. Compare Matthew 27:45-50 ; Mark 15:33-37 .


Verse 44

sixth hour : i.e. noon. See App-165 .

was = came to be.

over . Greek. epi. App-104 .

the earth = the land. Greek. ge. App-129 .

ninth hour: i.e. 3pm. See App-165 .


Verse 45

the veil. See Leviticus 4:6 . Matthew 27:51 .

the Temple- the Naos. See note on Matthew 23:16 .


Verse 46

commend = commit, or entrust. Compare Psalms 31:5 . Act 7:59 . 1 Peter 2:23 .

spirit. Greek. pneuma. App-101 . Compare Luke 8:55 .

gave up the ghost = expired, or breathed (His last).


Verse 47

Now , &c. Compare Matthew 27:51-56 . Mar 15:39-54 .

was done = took place.


Verse 48

people = crowds.

were done = took place.

smote, &c. = beating. returned. The women "stood". returned. Greek. hupostrepho = turned back. Occurs thirty-two times in Luke and Acts, and only three times elsewhere in N.T.


Verse 49

And = But. Marking the contrast between the people and the women.

His acquaintance = thosewho knew ( App-132 . ) Him,

followed = followed with.

Galilee . See App-169 .

stood = continued standing. The crowds turned back.

beholding = looking on. Greek. horao. App-133 .


Verse 50

man . Greek. aner. App-123 .

Joseph. One of two secret disciples who buried the Lord: Nicodemus being the other (see John 3:1 , John 3:4 , John 3:9 ; John 7:50 ; John 19:39 ). The Eleven had no part in it.

counsellor . A member of the Sanhedrin.


Verse 51

consented = voted with. Greek. sunkatatithemi. Occurs only here. counsel. Greek. Louie. App-102 .

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

also himself = himself also.

the kingdom of God. See App-114 .


Verse 52

begged = asked. Greek. aiteo. Same word as "re-quire", Luke 23:23 , and "desire", Luke 23:25 . App-134 .


Verse 53

linen . Showing he was a rich man. Compare Matthew 27:5 Mark 14:51 ; Mark 15:46 .

sepulchre = tomb.

hewn in stone = hewn in a rock. Greek. laxeutos. Occurs only here. -

never . . . before . Greek. ouk oudepo oudeis.


Verse 54

the preparation. See App-156 .

the sabbath. The high sabbath. See App-156 .


Verse 55

came = were come with. Only here and Acts 16:17 .

from = out of. Greek ek. App-104 . followed after. Greek. sunakoloutheo. Only here and Mark 5:37 .

beheld . Greek. theaomai. App-133 .


Verse 56

prepared , &c. These had to be bought (Mark 16:1 ) between the two sabbaths. See App-156 .

rested . Greek. hesuchazo = to rest from labour. Occurs only here, and in Luke 14:4 .Acts 11:18 ; Acts 21:14 ; and 1 Thessalonians 4:11 .

the commandment . Leviticus 23:4-7 . See App-156 .


Chapter 24

Verse 1

Now = But, &c. Compare Matthew 28:1 .Mark 16:2-4 . See App-166 .

the first day of the week. Our Saturday sunset to Sunday sunset.

very early in the morning . Greek. orthros bathos, lit, at deep dawn. Compare John 20:1 .

unto = upon. Greek. epi. App-104 .

sepulchre = tomb.

with. Greek. sun. App-104 .


Verse 2

they found, &c. See the question they had asked (Mark 16:3 ).

from = away from. Greek. apo. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 24:46 , Luke 24:49 ,


Verse 3

not. Greek. ou. App-105 .

the Lord Jesus. See App-98 . B.C. The first occurrence of this full expression. Rightly found in this connexion. It is the prelude to some forty occurrences in the Epistles.

Jesus . App-98 .


Verse 4

And it came to pass. A Hebraism.

as, &c. = in (Greek. en. App-104 .) their being, &c.

thereabout = concerning this. Greek. peri. App-104 .

behold. Greek idou. App-133 . Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

men . Greek. Plural of aner. App-123 . Not the same word as in Luke 24:7 .

in. Greek. en. App-104 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 24:12 , Luke 24:47 .

shining = flashing as lightning. Occurs only here, andin Luke 17:24 .

garments = splendid raiment. Only here.


Verse 5

as they were , &c. = becoming filled with fear. to. Greek eis. App-104 .

unto . Greek. pros. App-104 .

the living = the living One.

among . Greek. meta. App-104 . Not the same word as in Luke 24:47 .

the dead. See App-139 .


Verse 6

risen . App-178 .

remember . The true messenger of the Lord recalls His words. Compare Luke 24:8 .

Galilee . App-169 .


Verse 7

The Son of man . See App-98 .

into . Greek. eis. App-104 .

sinful, sinners . Greek. hamartelos. Compare App-128 .

men . Greek. Plural of anthropos. App-123 .


Verse 8

words . Greek. Plural of rhema. See note on Mark 9:32 .


Verse 10

Mary . See App-100 .

and , &c. = and the rest ( App-124 .)


Verse 11

to them = in their sight.

as = like.

idle tales = silly nonsense. Greek leros. Occurs only here. A medical term for delirium.

believed not = disbelieved. Greek. apisteo.


Verse 12

and ran . Note the six things Peter did here, "arose", "ran", "stooped", "beheld", "departed", "wondered,"; and the one thing he did not do, "believed".

beheld . Greek blepo. App-133 .

laid by themselves. Important evidence in view of Matthew 28:12-15 .

departed, &c. = went away to (Greek. pros. App-104 .)his own [house] wondering.


Verse 13

of . Greek. ek. App-101 . Not the same word as in verses: Luke 24:14 , Luke 24:42 .

them . Not apostles.

went = were going

that = in (Greek. en) that.

Emmaus. Now Khan el Khamaseh, eight miles south-west of Jerusalem (Conder), or Urtas, seven miles south (Finn).

furlongs . See App-51 .


Verse 14

talked together = were conversing with (Greek. pros. App-104 .) one another. Same as "communed" in Luke 24:15 .

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .


Verse 15

while, &c. = in (Greek. en) their communing, &c.

drew near , and = having drawn near.

went = was walking.


Verse 16

not. Greek. me. App-105 .

know = recognize. Greek epiginosko. App-132 .


Verse 17

communications. Greek. Plural of logos. See note on Mark 9:32 .

have = exchange. Only here in N.T. to. Greek. pros. App-104 .

and are sad . According to T Tr. 1 H R (not the Syriac) the question ends at "walk", and reads on: "and they stood still, sad in countenance".


Verse 18

Cleopas. Aramaic. See App-94 . An abbreviation of Cleopatros. Not the same as Clopas of John 19:25 .

only a . . . and hast = the only . . . who has.

known = got to know. App-132 .

there = in (Greek. en) it.


Verse 19

What things? = What kind of things? Concerning. Greek. peri. App-104 .

a prophet. See Acts 3:22 .

word. Greek. logos. See note on Mark 9:32 .


Verse 20

be condemned to = the judgment (Greek. krima. App-177 .) of:


Verse 21

trusted = were hoping.

should have redeemed = was about to redeem. In accordance with Luke 2:38 . Compare Acts 1:6 .

beside = with. Greek. sun. App-104 .

this = these things.

the third day . See App-148 and App-166 .

since = from (Greek. apo. App-104 .) the time when.


Verse 22

at. Greek. epi. App-104 .


Verse 23

also. Read "also" after "angels".

seen . Greek. horao. App-133 .

was alive = is living.


Verse 24

to . Greek. epi, as above.

saw. Greek. eidon. App-133 .


Verse 25

Then = And.

O fools = O dullards. Greek. anoetos = without reflection (not aphron = without mind; or asophos = withoutwisdom); i.e. dull is your heart, and slow in believing.

believe. See App-150 .

all = on all. Not some. The Jews believed the prophecies of' the "glory", but not those of the "sufferings", and cast the Lord out, because they thought He was not good enough for the world. Many today do the reverse, and think the world is not yet good enough for Him.


Verse 26

Ought not , &c. . . . ? Behoved it not?

not. Greek. ouchi. App-105 .

Christ = the Messiah. App-98 .

and to enter , &c. This, in God's counsels, was to follow immediately on the sufferings, had the nation repented. See Acts 3:18-26 , and compare 1 Peter 1:11 ; 1Pe 4:13 ; 1 Peter 5:1 . Doubtless this was the subject of Acts 1:3 .


Verse 27

beginning at Moses . Compare Genesis 3:15 ; Genesis 22:18 . Exodus 12,.Leviticus 16Numbers 21:9 . Deuteronomy 18:15 .Numbers 24:17 ; Numbers 20:11 .

at = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

Moses . See note on Luke 5:14 .

all = from all, &c. Compare Isaiah 7:14 ; Isaiah 9:6 , Isaiah 9:7 ; Isaiah 40:10 , Isaiah 40:11 ; Isaiah 50:6 ; Isaiah 53:4 , Isaiah 53:5 .Jeremiah 23:5 ; Jeremiah 33:14 , Jeremiah 33:15 .Ezekiel 34:23 .Micah 6:2 .Zechariah 6:12 ; Zechariah 9:9 ; Zechariah 12:10 ; Zechariah 13:7 . Malachi 3:1 ; Malachi 4:2 . See also Hebrews 1:1 .

expounded = interpreted.


Verse 28

unto . Greek. eis. App-104 . went = were going. made, &c. i.e. was going farther (but for their constraint). There was no deception. Literally, added to go. Greek. prospoieoniai. Only here.


Verse 29

constrained . Greek. parabiazomai. Occurs only here and Acts 16:15 .

with . Greek. meta. App-104 .

toward. Greek. pros. App-104 .

is far spent = has declined.


Verse 30

as He sat , &c. = in (Greek. en) His sitting down.

sat = reclined.

took bread . He took the part of the host.

bread = the bread.

brake, &c. See note on Matthew 14:19 .


Verse 31

vanished = became invisible. Greek. aphantos. Only here.

out of their sight = from (Greek. apo. App-104 .) them.


Verse 32

Did not, &c. = was not our heart burning.

within = in. Greek. en.

talked = was talking.

by = in. Greek. en.

opened = was interpreting.


Verse 33

gathered = crowded. Only here.


Verse 34

Saying: i.e. the eleven and those with them, being the speakers.

The Lord . App-98 . A.

is risen = has risen. Greek. egeiro. App-178 .

hath appeared. Greek. optomai. App-106 .


Verse 35

told = related,

was known = became known. App-132 .

breaking, &c. = the breaking of the bread.


Verse 37

seen. Greek. theoreo. App-133 .

spirit. Greek. pneuma. App-101 .


Verse 38

thoughts = reasonings.


Verse 39

Behold. Greek. Plural of ide. App-133 .:3.

see. Same as "behold".


Verse 41

for = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

wondered = were wondering.

any = anything.

meat = eatable. Greek. brosimos. Occurs only here.


Verse 42

broiled . Greek optos. Occurs only here.

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104 .

honeycomb . Common fare. Most texts omit from "and "to end of verse.


Verse 44

words . Plural of logos. See note on Mark 9:32 . must. Same as "ought" (Luke 24:26 ). Compare Acts 17:3 .

were written = have been (and stand) written. Compare Luke 24:26 , Luke 24:27 .

the Law, &c. These are the three great divisions of the Hebrew Bible. See App-1 and note on Matthew 5:17 .

Me. Christ is the one great subject of the whole Bible. Compare Isaiah 40:7 . John 5:39 . Act 17:3 . 1 John 5:20 .


Verse 45

opened, &c. For this important truth, see Matthew 11:27 ; Matthew 13:11 ; Matthew 16:17 . John 16:13 .Acts 16:14 . 1 Corinthians 2:14 . Compare Psalms 119:18 .


Verse 46

rise. App-178 .

from = out from among. Greek. ek. App-104 .

the dead . App-139 . See note on Matthew 17:9 . the third day. See App-148 and App-156 .


Verse 47

repentance . App-111 .

remission of sins . The new Covenant having been made, this could now be proclaimed. Compare Luke 1:17 . Acts 2:38 ; Acts 3:19 ; Acts 10:43 ; Acts 13:38 , Acts 13:39 . Hebrews 9:22 .

sins . Greek. hamartia. App-128 .

preached = proclaimed. App-121 .

in = on (the strength, or foundation of). Greek. epi. App-104 .

among = to. Greek. eis. App-104 .

nations = the nations.

beginning at Jerusalem. Compare Isaiah 2:3 .Micah 4:2 .

at = from. Greek. apo. App-104 . Compare Act 1:81


Verse 48

witnesses = witness-bearers. Compare Acts 1:8 ; Acts 2:32 ; Acts 3:15 ; Acts 4:33 ; Acts 5:30-32 , &c.


Verse 49

send . Greek. apostello, but T Tr. A WH R read exapostello, send out or forth. App-174 .:2.

the : i.e. the gift of pneuma hagion. According to Joel 2:28 (Acts 2:17 , Act 2:78 ). See Isaiah 44:3 .Ezekiel 36:26 .

upon . Greek. epi. App-104 .

power from on high . This defines the meaning of pneuma hagion, which is synonymous with it. See Acts 1:4 , Acts 1:5 .


Verse 50

He led, &c. At the end of the forty days (Acts 1:3-12 ).

as far as to . Until they were at, or opposite to.

Bethany . Now el'Azariyeh.


Verse 51

while : i.e. in (Greek. en) the act, &c.

was parted = stood apart.

heaven. Singular. See note on Matthew 6:9 , Matthew 6:10 .


Verse 52

worshipped = having worshipped. App-137 .


Verse 53

temple = the Temple courts. See note on Matthew 23:16 . Not offering or eating of the sacrifices there, but at home. See Acts 1:14 ; Acts 2:46 ; Acts 3:1 ; Acts 5:42 .

Luke ends his Gospel, and commences the Acts with the Ascension.