Christian Churches of God

No. F024




Commentary on Jeremiah:

Introduction and Part 1


(Edition 1.0 20230224-20230224)


Chapters 1-4 using both the RSV and the Septuagint (LXX)




Christian Churches of God

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 Commentary on Jeremiah: Introduction and Part 1


Jeremiah the Prophet

One of the Major Prophets, his work spans the period 626 BCE to ca 580 BCE.  His book is Second in the Canonical Order following Isaiah who was to complete his later works from 705 to 701 BCE. It was following the death of Sargon II in 705 that a general revolt against Assyria was to ensue.

The general view of the Latter Prophets places them in the canonical order of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve Prophets. For what are considered spurious reasons, Daniel is not included when his position as Nebuchadrezzar’s administrator in Babylon is recorded as being from 604 BCE prior to Ezekiel’s calling.

Some later MSS place Isaiah after Ezekiel and a passage in the Talmud (B.B, 14b) supports this as the correct order, and that Isaiah was composed by the “men of Hezekiah.” This view is very late and considered incorrect. The general view today is that Isaiah was of two elements including a Deutero Isaiah. However, the book as we know it went by the name of Isaiah by 180 BCE at the latest. That is also clear from Ecclus. 48:17-25 which refer to the historical sections of Isaiah chapters 36-39 and confirm Isa. 40:1, as do the later Qumran scrolls: the early scrolls are silent on the matter (see also Isaiah - Introduction).

Thus Jeremiah sits safely as the Second Book of the Latter Prophets of the Canon.


His Life and Ministry

Jeremiah was born in Anathoth, modern Ras el Kharubbeh ca. two miles NE of Jerusalem, the son of Hilkiah, a priest, possibly a descendant of Abiathar, whom Solomon expelled to Anathoth shortly after his accession to the throne (1Kgs. 2:26).  (Interpreters Dict. of the Bible, Art. Jeremiah, vol. 2, p. 825). The town belonged to Benjamin and for which Jeremiah seems to have had special concern and affection (6:1; 11:18-23; 31:15).  In his earliest poems he seems to have a firm grasp of the election and covenant of the faith of the Mosaic Age akin to Hosea’s understanding and work and Jeremiah’s work reflects the earlier prophets, which is exactly what we would expect.

His call came in 626 BCE and he was probably only a youth (1:6).  He was profoundly aware that he had been called to prophesy to the nations. Like Moses, he shrank from the burden but the power of the divine word overcame him (1:9). His Commission was over nations and kingdoms; to pluck up and break down, destroy and overthrow, to build and to plant.


Content and Sequence of Jeremiah

Many scholars have noticed that the sequence of Jeremiah in the MT is out of order and scholars like Bullinger have defended the fact that it was written that way by Jeremiah. He says there is no reason why Jeremiah was required to write it in any specific order. However the evidence is fairly clear that the Hebrew text was a different order when it was written, as it was translated into the Greek by the Seventy (LXX) ca 160 BCE for the Library in Alexandria. The text differs significantly from the modern MT text. The Greek text of the LXX was used by the church over the First and Second Centuries CE and there is no hint that the MT differed in any substantial way to the LXX, other than in the ages of a few patriarchs and the dictates of Greek Grammar and usage. Virtually all quotes from the NT are taken from the LXX and no early Church authority gives us any reason to consider the LXX differs in any significant way from the MT of the Temple. That continued until 70 CE when the Temple was destroyed by the Romans and the city sacked and pillaged (see War with Rome and the Fall of the Temple (No. 298)). After the fall, items were taken to Rome, by Titus including the Menorah and the Temple Codex of the original MT (see Arch of Titus in Rome). The Scroll remained in Rome until 220 CE when it was returned by Emperor Severin to the Jewish Community, as a gesture of goodwill. When it was returned it was noted that the Scroll differed from the texts used by the Jews at Jamnia after the compilation of the Mishnah ca 200. The Temple codex taken to Rome and handed over to the Jewish Community by the Emperor Severin ca 220 CE, had thirty-two passages that differed from other texts. The lists are preserved and the Companion Bible lists them in Appendix 34 and also makes notes in the margin of the verses. The Companion Bible notes are indispensable to any real study of the KJV. The Annotated Oxford RSV is also important. We hope that this paper will assist all those studying the KJV usage in theology.

(Forgeries, and Additions/Mistranslations in the Bible (No. 164F))


Since that time it appears that the MT has been altered again and there are many differences in the sequence of Jeremiah, at least between the original text translated by the LXX and the current MT. To assist us in the solving of this mystery we will have each of the chapters of the LXX added to the texts below ‘Intent of the Chapters’ as we study each part of the Commentary.



by E.W. Bullinger



Jeremiah 1:1-3 . INTRODUCTION. 


Jeremiah 2:1 - Jeremiah 20:18 . PROPHECIES ADDRESSED TO JEWS. 

Jeremiah 21:1 - Jeremiah 35:19 . HISTORY, &c. JEHOIAKIM. (Not chronological.) 


Jeremiah 37:1 - Jeremiah 45:5 . HISTORY, &c. ZEDEKIAH. (Not chronological.) 

Jeremiah 46:1 - Jeremiah 51:64 -. PROPHECIES ADDRESSED TO GENTILES. 


Jeremiah 52:1-34 . CONCLUSION.


For the CANONICAL order and place of the Prophets, see Appdx-1, and cp. page 1206,

For the CHRONOLOGICAL order of the Prophets, see Appdx-77.

For the inter-relation of the prophetic books, see Appdx-78.

For references to the Pentateuch in the Prophets, see Appdx-92.

For the Canonical order of Jeremiah''s prophecies, see below.

For the Chronological order of Jeremiah''s prophecies, see Appdx-83,

For the Septuagint version of Jeremiah, see Appdx-84.


The prophecies of Jeremiah do not profess to be given in chronological order (see Appdx-83); nor is there any reason why they should be so given. Why, we ask, should modern critics first assume that they ought to be, and then condemn them because they are not?


It is the historical portions, which concern JEHOIAKIM and ZEDEKIAH that are chiefly so affected. And, Who was Jehoiakim that his history should be of any importance? Was it not he who "cut up the Word of Jehovah with a penknife, and cast it in the fire"? Why should not his history be "cut up"? ZEDEKIAH rejected the same Word of Jehovah. Why should his history be respected?


Secular authors take the liberty of arranging their own literary matter as they choose; why should this liberty be denied to the sacred writers? The fact that the canonical and chronological portions have each their own particular Structures, and that both are perfect, shows that both orders have the same Divine Author.


Jeremiah''s prophecy is dated (Jeremiah 1:2 , Jeremiah 1:3 ) as being "in the days of Josiah ... in the thirteenth year of his reign. It came also in the days of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah ... unto the end of the eleventh year of Zedekiah ... unto the carrying away of Jerusalem captive in the fifth month."


[The dating of Bullinger was inaccurate due to the scholastic errors in dating of the 19th century scholars e.g. “The 13th year of Josiah was 518 B.C. The 11th year of Zedekiah was 477 B.C.” these errors are some 100 years too late. However his understanding is very good and accurate. Ed: He continues]:

Therefore the whole period covered by Jeremiah was 41 years, as shown in Appdx-50, pp. 60, 67, 68, and Appdx-77. It is highly probable that this period was exactly forty years the last probationary period (see Appdx-10) vouchsafed by Jehovah, before Jerusalem was destroyed and the Temple burnt.* But, as the month in the thirteenth year of Josiah, at which the Word first came to Jeremiah, is not stated, the whole period has to be shown as above, viz. 41 years.


Having regard to the Formulae of prophetic utterances (see Appdx-82), there appear to be some fifty-one distinct and clearly marked prophecies, commencing with some such formula as "The word of the LORD came", &c. It would have been well if the book could have been divided into fifty-one chapters (instead of fifty-two) so as to coincide with these.

See the table on Page 1015 of The Book of Jeremiah in the Companion Bible.


*Like the corresponding period of probation covered by the Acts of the Apostles, before the destruction of the second Temple. The Fig. Ellipsis (Revelation 6:0 ) should be repeated in each of these passages, from Jeremiah 47:1 [" The word of Jehovah came to Jeremiah the prophet] against", &c. 



"THE JEWS WHICH DWELL IN THE LAND OF EGYPT" (Jeremiah 44:1 ). As the end of the kingdom of Judah drew near, many of the Jews were determined to go into Egypt; and this in spite of the warning given by Jehovah through Jeremiah. In Jeremiah 44:0 we have the latest prophecy concerning those who had gone thither; which declared that they should not escape, but should be consumed there (Jeremiah 44:27 , &c). This prophecy must have been fulfilled concerning that generation; but their successors, or others that subsequently followed, continued there a little longer, until the time came for Egypt itself to fall into the hands of Babylon.


Recent discoveries of Papyri in the ruins of Elephantine (an island in the Nile, opposite Assouan), dating from the fifth century B. C, bear witness to two great facts: (1) That Jews were then dwelling there (in 424-405 B. C). (2) That they were observing the Feast of the Passover, "as it is written in the law of Moses". The importance of these Papyri lies in the fact that modern critics confidently assert and assume that the greater part of the Pentateuch was not written till after the Exile; and even then neither collectively as a whole, nor separately in its distinctive books. In Appdx-92 it is shown that all through the prophets (who lived at the time of the kings in whose reigns they prophesied) there is a constant reference to the books of the Pentateuch, which conclusively proves that their contents were well known both to the prophets themselves and those whom they addressed. The Pentateuch, being full of legal expressions, technical ceremonial terms, and distinctive phraseology, affords abundant evidence of the above fact, and makes it easy to call continuous attention to it in the notes of The Companion Bible. But there is further evidence found in the Papyri now discovered in the ruins at Elephantine in Upper Egypt. They show that the Jews who dwelt there had a temple of their own and offered up sacrifices therein. That once, when this, their temple, was destroyed by the Egyptians, they appealed to the Persian governor of Judah, asking permission to restore it (Papyrus I). There is a list preserved, registering the contributions towards the upkeep of the temple (containing the names of many ladies). But the most interesting and important of these Papyri is one dated in the year 419 B. C, which is a Passover "announcement" of the approaching feast, such as were made from the earliest times to the present day (see Nehemiah 8:15), containing a brief epitome of its laws and requirements. This particular announcement shows that the following passages were well known: Exodus 12:16 . Leviticus 23:7Leviticus 23:8 . Numbers 9:1-14 .Deuteronomy 16:6 . This Papyrus has been recently published by Professor Edward Sachau, of Berlin: Aramaische Papyrus und Ostraka aus einer jiidischen Militarkolonie zu Elephantine. Altorientalische Sprachdenkmaler des 5. Jahrhunderts vor Chr., mit 75 Lichtdrucktafalein. Leipzig, 1911. A small edition (texts only) by Professor Ungnad, of Jena, is published also under the title of Aramaische Papyrus aus Elephantine. Nearly 2,400 years, since this announcement by Hananjah to the Jews in Egypt, have gone by. Elephantine is now a heap of ruins. The colony of Jews has passed away (unless the "Falashas" of Abyssinia are their descendants), but the Jewish nation still exists and continues to keep the Passover, a standing witness to the truth of Holy Scripture, 44.  [The Elephantine Papyrii were later translated by H. L. Ginsberg in Pritchard J.B., The Ancient Near East An Anthology of Texts and Pictures (pp. 279-282 ed). See also Outline Timetable of the Age (No. 272). ]


Chapter 1

The words of Jeremiah, the son of Hilki'ah, of the priests who were in An'athoth in the land of Benjamin, 2to whom the word of the LORD came in the days of Josi'ah the son of Amon, king of Judah, in the thirteenth year of his reign. 3It came also in the days of Jehoi'akim the son of Josi'ah, king of Judah, and until the end of the eleventh year of Zedeki'ah, the son of Josi'ah, king of Judah, until the captivity of Jerusalem in the fifth month. 4Now the word of the LORD came to me saying, 5"Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you; I appointed you a prophet to the nations." 6Then I said, "Ah, Lord GOD! Behold, I do not know how to speak, for I am only a youth." 7But the LORD said to me, "Do not say, 'I am only a youth'; for to all to whom I send you you shall go, and whatever I command you you shall speak. 8Be not afraid of them, for I am with you to deliver you, says the LORD." 9Then the LORD put forth his hand and touched my mouth; and the LORD said to me, "Behold, I have put my words in your mouth. 10See, I have set you this day over nations and over kingdoms, to pluck up and to break down, to destroy and to overthrow, to build and to plant." 11And the word of the LORD came to me, saying, "Jeremiah, what do you see?" And I said, "I see a rod of almond." 12Then the LORD said to me, "You have seen well, for I am watching over my word to perform it." 13The word of the LORD came to me a second time, saying, "What do you see?" And I said, "I see a boiling pot, facing away from the north." 14Then the LORD said to me, "Out of the north evil shall break forth upon all the inhabitants of the land. 15For, lo, I am calling all the tribes of the kingdoms of the north, says the LORD; and they shall come and every one shall set his throne at the entrance of the gates of Jerusalem, against all its walls round about, and against all the cities of Judah. 16And I will utter my judgments against them, for all their wickedness in forsaking me; they have burned incense to other gods, and worshiped the works of their own hands. 17But you, gird up your loins; arise, and say to them everything that I command you. Do not be dismayed by them, lest I dismay you before them. 18And I, behold, I make you this day a fortified city, an iron pillar, and bronze walls, against the whole land, against the kings of Judah, its princes, its priests, and the people of the land. 19They will fight against you; but they shall not prevail against you, for I am with you, says the LORD, to deliver you."


Intent of Chapter 1

vv. 1-3 Intro. 1. Words of Jeremiah history. Jeremiah means the Lord (Yahovah) exalts. Priests in Anathoth see Introduction;

v. 2 Thirteenth year of Josiah 627/6 BCE

v. 3 Eleventh Year of Zedekiah 587/6 BCE

vv. 4-19 Jeremiah’s Commission Given and Visions

vv. 4-10 Jeremiah’s First Prophecy

v. 4 Word of the Lord Emphasises that these are God’s words in prophecy through Jeremiah.

v. 5 Here God emphasises His Divine Omniscience and His Predestination (No. 296). This aspect was taken up also by Paul in Rom. 8:28-30 (F045ii). We see this power exercised in Jeremiah and particularly in Chapter 4:15-27 re the prophet of Dan in Ephraim in the Last Days in the Church of God, and for the Return of the Messiah. Jeremiah is appointed a prophet to the nations, not just to Assyria, Babylonia, Egypt and Judah but also to Israel in the dispersion and through the preservation of the Canon (No. 164) to all in the world. 

vv. 6-8 Jeremiah was less than the required age to teach as a priest in the Temple (i.e. 30 Years) and may have been even under the required age to be in Service there (25 Years).  God’s Spirit would be sufficient and would support him in all his works.

v. 9 Comp. 15:19; Mat. 10:19-20; 21-23.

v. 10 This charge and power in the Spirit of God was to set Jeremiah over nations and over kingdoms, to pluck up and break down, to destroy and to overthrow and to build and to plant (cf. Isa. 55:10-11). This power was to cover a massive scope ignored by modern scholarship, as we will see.

vv. 11-12 Jeremiah’s Second Prophecy

The word in v. 11 translated ‘almond’ in the Hebrew is shaped and the word ‘watching’ in v. 12 is the Hebrew meaning shaped and hence is a play on words to emphasise and encourage the nervous young prophet in the face of the opposition God knew he was to face.

1:13-19 Jeremiah’s Third Prophecy

1:13-14 Facing away from the north The meaning of the Hebrew is considered uncertain. The translation here implies that it is spilling its hot contents towards the south, or alternatively the draft on the fire came from the north, the usual route of invasion.

1:17-19 Here God expands on vv. 4-8 making Jeremiah a fortified city, an iron pillar, and a bronze wall against the whole land and against the kings of Judah and its princes and priests and the people of the whole land. No one would prevail against him as God was with him. Thus the predestination involving Jeremiah and indeed the other prophets involved nations. This was to have profound importance for the future of Israel. 


In the first Four chapters of Part I there is not a substantial difference between the MT and the LXX as we can see.


English Translation of the Greek Septuagint Bible

Brenton, Sir Lancelot C. L... (1851)


Jeremias Chapter 1 1:1 The word of God which came to Jeremias the son of Chelcias, of the priests, who dwelt in Anathoth in the land of Benjamin: 2 accordingly as the word of God came to him in the days of Josias son of Amos king of Juda, in the thirteenth year of his reign. 3 And it was in the days of Joakim, son of Josias king of Juda, until the eleventh year of Sedekias king of Juda, even until the captivity of Jerusalem in the fifth month. 4 And the word of the Lord came to him, saying, 5 Before I formed thee in the belly, I knew thee; and before thou camest forth from the womb, I sanctified thee; I appointed thee a prophet to the nations. 6 And I said, O Lord, thou that art supreme Lord, behold, I know not how to speak, for I am a child. 7 And the Lord said to me, Say not, I am a child: for thou shalt go to all to whomsoever I shall send thee, and according to all the words that I shall command thee, thou shalt speak. 8 Be not afraid before them: for I am with thee to deliver thee, saith the Lord. 9 And the Lord stretched forth his hand to me, and touched my mouth: and the Lord said to me, Behold, I have put my words into thy mouth. 10 Behold, I have appointed thee this day over nations and over kingdoms, to root out, and to pull down, and to destroy, and to rebuild, and to plant. 11 And the word of the Lord came to me, saying, What seest thou? And I said, A rod of an almond tree. 12 And the Lord said to me, Thou hast well seen: for I have watched over my words to perform them. 13 And the word of the Lord came to me a second time, saying, What seest thou? And I said, A caldron on the fire; and the face of it is toward the north. 14 And the Lord said to me, From the north shall flame forth evils upon all the inhabitants of the land. 15 For, behold, I call together all the kingdoms of the earth from the north, saith the Lord; and they shall come, and shall set each one his throne at the entrance of the gates of Jerusalem, and against all the walls round about her, and against all the cities of Juda. 16 And I will speak to them in judgment, concerning all their iniquity, forasmuch as they have forsaken me, and sacrificed to strange gods, and worshipped the works of their own hands. 17 And do thou gird up thy loins, and stand up, and speak all the words that I shall command thee: be not afraid of their face, neither be thou alarmed before them; for I am with thee to deliver thee, saith the Lord. 18 Behold, I have made thee this day as a strong city, and as a brazen wall, strong against all the kings of Juda, and the princes thereof, and the people of the land. 19 And they shall fight against thee; but they shall by no means prevail against thee; because I am with thee, to deliver thee, saith the Lord.


Chapter 2

Israel Forsakes God

The word of the LORD came to me, saying, 2"Go and proclaim in the hearing of Jerusalem, Thus says the LORD, I remember the devotion of your youth, your love as a bride, how you followed me in the wilderness, in a land not sown. 3Israel was holy to the LORD, the first fruits of his harvest. All who ate of it became guilty; evil came upon them, says the LORD." 4Hear the word of the LORD, O house of Jacob, and all the families of the house of Israel. 5Thus says the LORD: "What wrong did your fathers find in me that they went far from me, and went after worthlessness, and became worthless? 6They did not say, 'Where is the LORD who brought us up from the land of Egypt, who led us in the wilderness, in a land of deserts and pits, in a land of drought and deep darkness, in a land that none passes through, where no man dwells?' 7And I brought you into a plentiful land to enjoy its fruits and its good things. But when you came in you defiled my land, and made my heritage an abomination. 8The priests did not say, 'Where is the LORD?' Those who handle the law did not know me; the rulers transgressed against me; the prophets prophesied by Ba'al, and went after things that do not profit. 9"Therefore I still contend with you, says the LORD, and with your children's children I will contend. 10For cross to the coasts of Cyprus and see, or send to Kedar and examine with care; see if there has been such a thing. 11Has a nation changed its gods, even though they are no gods? But my people have changed their glory for that which does not profit. 12Be appalled, O heavens, at this, be shocked, be utterly desolate, says the LORD, 13for my people have committed two evils: they have forsaken me, the fountain of living waters, and hewed out cisterns for themselves, broken cisterns, that can hold no water. 14"Is Israel a slave? Is he a homeborn servant? Why then has he become a prey? 15The lions have roared against him, they have roared loudly. They have made his land a waste; his cities are in ruins, without inhabitant. 16Moreover, the men of Memphis and Tah'panhes have broken the crown of your head. 17Have you not brought this upon yourself by forsaking the LORD your God, when he led you in the way? 18And now what do you gain by going to Egypt, to drink the waters of the Nile? Or what do you gain by going to Assyria, to drink the waters of the Euphra'tes? 19Your wickedness will chasten you, and your apostasy will reprove you. Know and see that it is evil and bitter for you to forsake the LORD your God; the fear of me is not in you, says the Lord GOD of hosts. 20"For long ago you broke your yoke and burst your bonds; and you said, 'I will not serve.' Yea, upon every high hill and under every green tree you bowed down as a harlot. 21Yet I planted you a choice vine, wholly of pure seed. How then have you turned degenerate and become a wild vine? 22Though you wash yourself with lye and use much soap, the stain of your guilt is still before me, says the Lord GOD. 23How can you say, 'I am not defiled, I have not gone after the Ba'als'? Look at your way in the valley; know what you have done--a restive young camel interlacing her tracks, 24a wild ass used to the wilderness, in her heat sniffing the wind! Who can restrain her lust? None who seek her need weary themselves; in her month they will find her. 25Keep your feet from going unshod and your throat from thirst. But you said, 'It is hopeless, for I have loved strangers, and after them I will go.' 26"As a thief is shamed when caught, so the house of Israel shall be shamed: they, their kings, their princes, their priests, and their prophets, 27who say to a tree, 'You are my father,' and to a stone, 'You gave me birth.' For they have turned their back to me, and not their face. But in the time of their trouble they say, 'Arise and save us!' 28But where are your gods that you made for yourself? Let them arise, if they can save you, in your time of trouble; for as many as your cities are your gods, O Judah. 29"Why do you complain against me? You have all rebelled against me, says the LORD. 30In vain have I smitten your children, they took no correction; your own sword devoured your prophets like a ravening lion. 31And you, O generation, heed the word of the LORD. Have I been a wilderness to Israel, or a land of thick darkness? Why then do my people say, 'We are free, we will come no more to thee'? 32Can a maiden forget her ornaments, or a bride her attire? Yet my people have forgotten me days without number. 33"How well you direct your course to seek lovers! So that even to wicked women you have taught your ways. 34Also on your skirts is found the lifeblood of guiltless poor; you did not find them breaking in. Yet in spite of all these things 35you say, 'I am innocent; surely his anger has turned from me.' Behold, I will bring you to judgment for saying, 'I have not sinned.' 36How lightly you gad about, changing your way! You shall be put to shame by Egypt as you were put to shame by Assyria. 37From it too you will come away with your hands upon your head, for the LORD has rejected those in whom you trust, and you will not prosper by them.


Intent of Chapter 2

2:1-37 The Apostasy of Israel This text refers to the whole house of Israel, both Judah, being dealt with at this time and being sent into captivity, and the whole of Israel of which the Ten Tribes had been sent into captivity by 722 BCE under the Assyrians. This text is a warning to both idolatrous houses, rotten with Baal worship of the Mystery and Sun cults to this very day.

vv. 1-3 God defends His Bride. In this He follows Hos. 2:16 and compares the Covenant at Sinai to the marriage vows. He protected her against all attempts to violate Israel from Amalekites, Canaanites, Philistines and others who would damage her.

vv. 4-9 God expresses here His unwavering commitment to Israel and His saving them from Egypt and placing them in the Promised Land.

v. 8 The priests and the Levites did not know God. The shepherds transgressed against God (here the Hebrew is translated rulers in the RSV).

The time necessitated Josiah’s reformation and after Josiah’s death God through Jeremiah was to verbally attack the prophets as we see in Ch. 23).

vv. 10-13 In this text God calls on the heavenly assembly of the Elohim to witness against Israel (Isa. 1:2; Mic. 6:1); to witness the folly not even seen among the gentiles either in the west (Cyprus) and the east (Kedar); of a people who forsake the Fountain of Living Waters (Jn. 4:10-15; 7:38) for what God terms the stagnant waters of what they have made to be a dry and leaky cistern  (F043) (cf. also 8:4-7). 

2:14-19 Israel had forsaken her covenant birthright of Freedom under the law of God to become slaves of the northern power (Assyria – the lions) and Egypt (Memphis was the capital of Northern Egypt fourteen miles south of Cairo), bringing disgrace upon themselves (Comp. 16b with Isa. 3:17; 7:20). 

vv. 16-18 Comp. v. 36

vv. 20-28 Here unfaithful Israel is compared to a stubborn ox and to a wild vine (see also Isa. 5:1-7; Hos. 10:1). They germinated from good seed but were now inexplicably completely worthless.

Israel is compared to a nymphomaniacal prostitute (see Hos 4:13) who refuses to accept her guilt despite the evidence, such as sacrifice in the valleys etc. Like a thief is only remorseful when confronted by their wrongdoing, which God here likens to the trees (Asherah) as their father, and a stone saying you gave me birth (menhirs and idols); all evidence of the cultic accoutrements. Let these gods now rescue Israel in her time of need. Thus it will continue now into the Last Days and Israel will finally be destroyed and lastly rescued as captives by Messiah.

vv. 29-31 Israel rejected God and killed His Prophets (1Kgs. 19:10; 2Kgs. 21:16); (see also No. 122C).

v. 32 See vv. 2-3.

2:33-37 Israel is condemned by undeniable evidence. In shame and sorrow, symbolisd by the hands upon the head, and abandoned by her lovers (here Egypt and Assyria, but in the last days by the nations in their entirety). Faithless Israel and the nations among which they are scattered will stand alone before God and be corrected by Messiah for the millennial system. 


Chapters 3:1-4:4

We see the exhortations to Israel to repent, by God through the prophet.


English Translation of the Greek Septuagint Bible

Brenton, Sir Lancelot C. L... (1851)


Chapter 2 2:1 And he said, Thus saith the Lord, 2 I remember the kindness of thy youth, and the love of thine espousals, 3 in following the Holy One of Israel, saith the Lord, Israel was the holy people to the Lord, and the first-fruits of his increase: all that devoured him shall offend; evils shall come upon them, saith the Lord. 4 Hear the word of the Lord, O house of Jacob, and every family of the house of Israel. 5 Thus saith the Lord, What trespass have your fathers found in me, that they have revolted far from me, and gone after vanities, and become vain? 6 And they said not, Where is the Lord, who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, who guided us in the wilderness, in an untried and trackless land, in a land which no man at all went through, and no man dwelt there? 7 And I brought you to Carmel, that ye should eat the fruits thereof, and the good thereof; and ye went in, and defiled my land, and made mine heritage an abomination. 8 The priests said not, Where is the Lord? and they that held by the law knew me not: the shepherds also sinned against me, and the prophets prophesied by Baal, and went after that which profited not. 9 Therefore I will yet plead with you, and will plead with your children’s children. 10 For go to the isles of the Chettians, and see; and send to Kedar, and observe accurately, and see if such things have been done; 11 if the nations will change their gods, though they are not gods: but my people have changed their glory, for that from which they shall not be profited. 12 The heaven is amazed at this, and is very exceedingly horror-struck, saith the Lord. 13 For my people has committed two faults, and evil ones: they have forsaken me, the fountain of water of life, and hewn out for themselves broken cisterns, which will not be able to hold water. 14 Is Israel a servant, or a home-born slave? why has he become a spoil? 15 The lions roared upon him, and uttered their voice, which have made his land a wilderness: and his cities are broken down, that they should not be inhabited. 16 Also the children of Memphis and Taphnas have known thee, and mocked thee. 17 Has not thy forsaking me brought these things upon thee? saith the Lord thy God. 18 And now what hast thou to do with the way of Egypt, to drink the water of Geon? and what hast thou to do with the way of the Assyrians, to drink the water of rivers? 19 Thine apostasy shall correct thee, and thy wickedness shall reprove thee: know then, and see, that thy forsaking me has been bitter to thee, saith the Lord thy God; and I have taken no pleasure in thee, saith the Lord thy God. 20 For of old thou hast broken thy yoke, and plucked asunder thy bands; and thou has said, I will not serve thee, but will go upon every high hill, and under every shady tree, there will I indulge in my fornication. 21 Yet I planted thee a fruitful vine, entirely of the right sort: how art thou a strange vine turned to bitterness! 22 Though thou shouldest wash thyself with nitre, and multiply to thyself soap, still thou art stained by thine iniquities before me, saith the Lord. 23 How wilt thou say, I am not polluted, and have not gone after Baal? behold thy ways in the burial-ground, and know what thou hast done: her voice has howled in the evening: 24 she has extended her ways over the waters of the desert; she was hurried along by the lusts of her soul; she is given up to them, who will turn her back? none that seek her shall be weary; at the time of her humiliation they shall find her. 25 Withdraw thy foot from a rough way, and thy throat from thirst: but she said I will strengthen myself: for she loved strangers, and went after them. 26 As is the shame of a thief when he is caught, so shall the children of Israel be ashamed; they, and their kings, and their princes, and their priests, and their prophets. 27 They said to a stock, Thou art my father; and to a stone, Thou has begotten me: and they have turned their backs to me, and not their faces: yet in the time of their afflictions they will say, Arise, and save us. 28 And where are thy gods, which thou madest for thyself? will they arise and save in the time of thine affliction? for according to the number of thy cities were thy gods, O Juda; and according to the number of the streets of Jerusalem they sacrificed to Baal. 29 Wherefore do ye speak unto me? ye all have been ungodly, and ye all have transgressed against me, saith the Lord. 30 In vain have I smitten your children; ye have not received correction: a sword has devoured your prophets as a destroying lion; yet ye feared not. 31 Hear ye the word of the Lord: thus saith the Lord, Have I been a wilderness or a dry land to Israel? wherefore has my people said, We will not be ruled over, and will not come to thee any more? 32 Will a bride forget her ornaments, or a virgin her girdle? but my people has forgotten me days without number. 33 What fair device wilt thou yet employ in thy ways, so as to seek love? it shall not be so; moreover thou has done wickedly in corrupting thy ways; 34 and in thine hands has been found the blood of innocent souls; I have not found them in holes, but on every oak. 35 Yet thou saidst, I am innocent: only let his wrath be turned away from me. Behold, I will plead with thee, whereas thou sayest, I have not sinned. 36 For thou has been so exceedingly contemptuous as to repeat thy ways; but thou shalt be ashamed of Egypt, as thou wast ashamed of Assur. 37 For thou shalt go forth thence also with thine hands upon thine head; for the Lord has rejected thine hope, and thou shalt not prosper in it.


Chapter 3

Divorce and Remarriage

"If a man divorces his wife and she goes from him and becomes another man's wife, will he return to her? Would not that land be greatly polluted? You have played the harlot with many lovers; and would you return to me? says the LORD. 2Lift up your eyes to the bare heights, and see! Where have you not been lain with? By the waysides you have sat awaiting lovers like an Arab in the wilderness. You have polluted the land with your vile harlotry. 3Therefore the showers have been withheld, and the spring rain has not come; yet you have a harlot's brow, you refuse to be ashamed. 4Have you not just now called to me, 'My father, thou art the friend of my youth-- 5will he be angry for ever, will he be indignant to the end?' Behold, you have spoken, but you have done all the evil that you could." 6The LORD said to me in the days of King Josi'ah: "Have you seen what she did, that faithless one, Israel, how she went up on every high hill and under every green tree, and there played the harlot? 7And I thought, 'After she has done all this she will return to me'; but she did not return, and her false sister Judah saw it. 8She saw that for all the adulteries of that faithless one, Israel, I had sent her away with a decree of divorce; yet her false sister Judah did not fear, but she too went and played the harlot. 9Because harlotry was so light to her, she polluted the land, committing adultery with stone and tree. 10Yet for all this her false sister Judah did not return to me with her whole heart, but in pretense, says the LORD." 11And the LORD said to me, "Faithless Israel has shown herself less guilty than false Judah. 12Go, and proclaim these words toward the north, and say, 'Return, faithless Israel, says the LORD. I will not look on you in anger, for I am merciful, says the LORD; I will not be angry for ever. 13Only acknowledge your guilt, that you rebelled against the LORD your God and scattered your favors among strangers under every green tree, and that you have not obeyed my voice, says the LORD. 14Return, O faithless children, says the LORD; for I am your master; I will take you, one from a city and two from a family, and I will bring you to Zion. 15"'And I will give you shepherds after my own heart, who will feed you with knowledge and understanding. 16And when you have multiplied and increased in the land, in those days, says the LORD, they shall no more say, "The ark of the covenant of the LORD." It shall not come to mind, or be remembered, or missed; it shall not be made again. 17At that time Jerusalem shall be called the throne of the LORD, and all nations shall gather to it, to the presence of the LORD in Jerusalem, and they shall no more stubbornly follow their own evil heart. 18In those days the house of Judah shall join the house of Israel, and together they shall come from the land of the north to the land that I gave your fathers for a heritage. 19"'I thought how I would set you among my sons, and give you a pleasant land, a heritage most beauteous of all nations. And I thought you would call me, My Father, and would not turn from following me. 20Surely, as a faithless wife leaves her husband, so have you been faithless to me, O house of Israel, says the LORD.'" 21A voice on the bare heights is heard, the weeping and pleading of Israel's sons, because they have perverted their way, they have forgotten the LORD their God. 22"Return, O faithless sons, I will heal your faithlessness." "Behold, we come to thee; for thou art the LORD our God. 23Truly the hills are a delusion, the orgies on the mountains. Truly in the LORD our God is the salvation of Israel. 24"But from our youth the shameful thing has devoured all for which our fathers labored, their flocks and their herds, their sons and their daughters. 25Let us lie down in our shame, and let our dishonor cover us; for we have sinned against the LORD our God, we and our fathers, from our youth even to this day; and we have not obeyed the voice of the LORD our God."


Intent of Chapter 3

3:1-4:4 deals with the unrelenting harlotry of Israel over the ages.

3:1-5 Judah has sinned beyond that of even Israel and beyond that even contemplated under the law (Deut. 24:1-4). So God withholds the rains, and the latter rains; but Judah does not abandon her blatant indiscriminate harlotry (2:20). She cannot merit or expect any healing by God in her condition (see also vv. 6-13).

v. 1 Land  LXX reads “woman”

3:6-14 The Return of Israel is considered intrusive here and some scholars think it is not by Jeremiah (comp. chs. 30-31; Ezek. Chs. 16; 23). God sent Israel into exile with a decree of divorce (Deut. 24:1-4), but Judah’s guilt is worse. Judah failed to learn from her sister’s punishment in the Northern tribes. Perhaps at odds with vv. 1-5, Israel is invited to repent and return. They do not return and Messiah sent the Apostles to them after 30 CE throughout Parthia and Scythia and as far as India (see No. 122D). Even then they played the harlot and now face the Wrath of God in the Last Days under Messiah (No. 141E) .

3:15-18 This section speaks of the establishment of faithful shepherds in the Last Days and promises to re-establish Judah and all Israel. It looks forward to a time when the nation of Israel has multiplied itself among the nations. The Ark of the Covenant (No. 196) was taken and hidden, reportedly by Jeremiah, and it will be brought to mind no more. Jerusalem, under Messiah, will replace the Ark as the symbol of the Throne of God among the Elect (No. 001) and the millennial nations (cf. 282D). The Church of God was established by Messiah and the Holy Spirit (No. 117) was given to its shepherds from 30 CE. Even so the people of Israel still managed to kill its shepherds on a widespread basis over the 2000 years (see F044vii).

v. 17 speaks of the Last Days (No. 192) when Messiah re-establishes Jerusalem as the Throne of God (14:21; 17:12). It speaks of the gathering of the people to Jerusalem as we see in Zech. 14:16-21 (F038).

v. 18 In those days the House of Judah will join the house of Israel and they shall come again from the north lands and be established again in the Promised Land.

3:19-20 The text continues vv. 1-5. Contrary to the custom (Num. 27:1-8) God would have made His “daughter” Judah His heir but her constant faithlessness makes this impossible.  Even to this very day they keep a false calendar and postpone the Holy Days and New Moons and keep the Babylonian Intercalations and postpone the Passovers into the incorrect months and even years (see ##195; 195C). They will be given their last chance under the Witnesses (Rev. 11:3ff; F066:iii) and then face the Messiah. 

3:21-4:4 Continuation of the prophecy.

3:21-22 From the heights From these sites of future idolatry will come cries of Repentance (12-14) and resolve to return to God (Hos. 14:2-3). The conditions of repentance are removal of all pagan religious practices and sites and the pollution of our churches by the carcasses of our kings. It involves recognition of God’s exclusive position and sovereignty by swearing in His Name only (4:2b below).

v. 23 Truly the Lord our God is the Salvation of Israel.

3:24-25 Idolatry and its shameful practices have destroyed all for which Israel has laboured from their flocks and herds to their sons and daughters.

Let them lie down in shame for they have sinned and still sin to this day against the Lord their God.


English Translation of the Greek Septuagint Bible

Brenton, Sir Lancelot C. L... (1851)


Chapter 3 3:1 If a man put away his wife, and she depart from him, and become another man’s, shall she return to him any more at all? shall not that woman be utterly defiled? ye thou hast gone a-whoring with many shepherds, and hast returned to me, saith the Lord. 2 Lift up thine eyes to look straight forward, and see where thou hast not been utterly defiled. Thou hast sat for them by the wayside as a deserted crow, and hast defiled the land with thy fornications and thy wickedness. 3 And thou didst retain many shepherds for a stumbling-block to thyself: thou hadst a whore’s face, thou didst become shameless toward all. 4 Hast thou not called me as it were a home, and the father and guide of thy virgin-time? 5 Will God’s anger continue for ever, or be preserved to the end? Behold, thou hast spoken and done these bad things, and hadst power to do them. 6 And the Lord said to me in the days of Josias the king, Hast thou seen what things the house of Israel has done to me? they have gone on every high mountain, and under every shady tree, and have committed fornication there. 7 And I said after she had committed all these acts of fornication, Turn again to me. Yet she returned not. And faithless Juda saw her faithlessness. 8 And I saw that (for all the sins of which she was convicted, wherein the house of Israel committed adultery, and I put her away, and gave into her hands a bill of divorcement,) yet faithless Juda feared not, but went and herself also committed fornication. 9 And her fornication was nothing accounted of; and she committed adultery with wood and stone. 10 And for all these things faithless Juda turned not to me with all her heart, but falsely. 11 And the Lord said to me, Israel has justified himself more than faithless Juda. 12 Go and read these words toward the north, and thou shalt say, Return to me, O house of Israel, saith the Lord; and I will not set my face against you: for I am merciful, saith the Lord, and I will not be angry with you for ever. 13 Nevertheless, know thine iniquity, that thou hast sinned against the Lord thy God, and hast scattered thy ways to strangers under every shady tree, but thou didst not hearken to my voice, saith the Lord. 14 Turn, ye children that have revolted, saith the Lord; for I will rule over you: and I will take you one of a city, and two of a family, and I will bring you in to Sion: 15 and I will give you shepherds after my heart, and they shall certainly tend you with knowledge. 16 And it shall come to pass that when ye are multiplied and increased upon the land, saith the Lord, in those days they shall say no more, The ark of the covenant of the Holy One of Israel: it shall not come to mind; it shall not be named; neither shall it be visited; nor shall this be done any more. 17 In those days and at that time they shall call Jerusalem the throne of the Lord; and all the nations shall be gathered to it: and they shall not walk any more after the imaginations of their evil heart. 18 In those days the house of Juda, shall come together to the house of Israel, and they shall come, together, from the land of the north, and from all the countries, to the land, which I caused their fathers to inherit. 19 And I said, So be it, Lord, for thou saidst I will set thee among children, and will give thee a choice land, the inheritance of the Almighty God of the Gentiles: and I said, Ye shall call me Father; and ye shall not turn away from me. 20 But as a wife acts treacherously against her husband, so has the house of Israel dealt treacherously against me, saith the Lord. 21 A voice from the lips was heard, even of weeping and supplication of the children of Israel: for they have dealt unrighteously in their ways, they have forgotten God their Holy One. 22 Turn, ye children that are given to turning, and I will heal your bruises. Behold, we will be thy servants; for thou art the Lord our God. 23 Truly the hills and the strength of the mountains were a lying refuge: but by the Lord our God is the salvation of Israel. 24 But shame has consumed the labours of our fathers from our youth; their sheep and their calves, and their sons and their daughters. 25 We have lain down in our shame, and our disgrace has covered us: because we and our fathers have sinned before our God, from our youth until this day; and we have not hearkened to the voice of the Lord our God.


Chapter 4

"If you return, O Israel, says the LORD, to me you should return. If you remove your abominations from my presence, and do not waver, 2and if you swear, 'As the LORD lives,' in truth, in justice, and in uprightness, then nations shall bless themselves in him, and in him shall they glory." 3For thus says the LORD to the men of Judah and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem: "Break up your fallow ground, and sow not among thorns. 4Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, remove the foreskin of your hearts, O men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem; lest my wrath go forth like fire, and burn with none to quench it, because of the evil of your doings." 5Declare in Judah, and proclaim in Jerusalem, and say, "Blow the trumpet through the land; cry aloud and say, 'Assemble, and let us go into the fortified cities!' 6Raise a standard toward Zion, flee for safety, stay not, for I bring evil from the north, and great destruction. 7A lion has gone up from his thicket, a destroyer of nations has set out; he has gone forth from his place to make your land a waste; your cities will be ruins without inhabitant. 8For this gird you with sackcloth, lament and wail; for the fierce anger of the LORD has not turned back from us." 9"In that day, says the LORD, courage shall fail both king and princes; the priests shall be appalled and the prophets astounded." 10Then I said, "Ah, Lord GOD, surely thou hast utterly deceived this people and Jerusalem, saying, 'It shall be well with you'; whereas the sword has reached their very life." 11At that time it will be said to this people and to Jerusalem, "A hot wind from the bare heights in the desert toward the daughter of my people, not to winnow or cleanse, 12a wind too full for this comes for me. Now it is I who speak in judgment upon them." 13Behold, he comes up like clouds, his chariots like the whirlwind; his horses are swifter than eagles--woe to us, for we are ruined! 14O Jerusalem, wash your heart from wickedness, that you may be saved. How long shall your evil thoughts lodge within you? 15For a voice declares from Dan and proclaims evil from Mount E'phraim. 16Warn the nations that he is coming; announce to Jerusalem, "Besiegers come from a distant land; they shout against the cities of Judah. 17Like keepers of a field are they against her round about, because she has rebelled against me, says the LORD. 18Your ways and your doings have brought this upon you. This is your doom, and it is bitter; it has reached your very heart." 19My anguish, my anguish! I writhe in pain! Oh, the walls of my heart! My heart is beating wildly; I cannot keep silent; for I hear the sound of the trumpet, the alarm of war. 20Disaster follows hard on disaster, the whole land is laid waste. Suddenly my tents are destroyed, my curtains in a moment. 21How long must I see the standard, and hear the sound of the trumpet? 22"For my people are foolish, they know me not; they are stupid children, they have no understanding. They are skilled in doing evil, but how to do good they know not." 23I looked on the earth, and lo, it was waste and void; and to the heavens, and they had no light. 24I looked on the mountains, and lo, they were quaking, and all the hills moved to and fro. 25I looked, and lo, there was no man, and all the birds of the air had fled. 26I looked, and lo, the fruitful land was a desert, and all its cities were laid in ruins before the LORD, before his fierce anger. 27For thus says the LORD, "The whole land shall be a desolation; yet I will not make a full end. 28For this the earth shall mourn, and the heavens above be black; for I have spoken, I have purposed; I have not relented nor will I turn back." 29At the noise of horseman and archer every city takes to flight; they enter thickets; they climb among rocks; all the cities are forsaken, and no man dwells in them. 30And you, O desolate one, what do you mean that you dress in scarlet, that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold, that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you beautify yourself. Your lovers despise you; they seek your life. 31For I heard a cry as of a woman in travail, anguish as of one bringing forth her first child, the cry of the daughter of Zion gasping for breath, stretching out her hands, "Woe is me! I am fainting before murderers."


Intent of Chapter 4

The Warning of the Last Days (No. 044)

Warning for the End Times (Jer. 4:1-31)

vv. 1-4 “The return to God is based firstly on the removal of abominations from among the people and the warning is to Israel firstly and then to Judah. It is by the circumcision of the hearts that Israel is saved and the nations are blessed in the God of Israel. Israel is warned first and then Judah is to be occupied by God’s Witnesses and then the Messiah. It is first to Israel and then to Judah from Jerusalem that the sequence is proclaimed. This text follows on from the previous chapters dealing with the absolute harlotry of Israel and Judah and their idolatrous practices, even to the very end.

4:5-31 The Enemy from the North

This is a recurring theme of Jeremiah because generally their enemies come from the North and especially when God raised them up to correct Israel and Judah (1:13-14; 5:15-17; 6:1-5 etc).

4:5-12 They are to sound the alarm and muster for the defence (see also 6:1-8). He implies that like a beast of prey the enemy approaches (cf. 5:6);

vv. 5-9 The proclamation is of evil and great destruction that comes from the North. It is the prophecies of Revelation when the angels are released from the pit that were kept at Euphrates so that a third of the world shall be destroyed in the wars of the Fifth and Sixth trumpets. So also must Judah be purged of its Kabbalistic Mysticism, as Israel is purged of its Babylonian Mysteries and Sun cults (#295). All must be cleansed and purged with hyssop. Then they are prepared for the wars of the end.


It is in those days that the princes, priests and prophets will be astonished because they had no understanding of just how far they had fallen into the Sun cults and the Babylonian Mysteries.  Their priests and rabbis have to be purged and cleansed of their idolatry and falsehood (see also 6:13-15; 14:13-16; 23:16-17). God’s judgment will sweep over the land, as the hot desert wind, destroying all before it (18:17). 

v. 10 The coming of the wars of the end is prophesied firstly by the voice of Dan/Ephraim that warns of the coming of the Messiah and the Wars of the End that besiege the cities of Judah. So the smooth words spoken by the prophets are lies and Israel and Judah are deceived.

vv. 11-13 The judgment of God is sent upon them and ruin is upon them. At the end modern warfare is inflicted upon them. It will happen swiftly. Like the eagle and the storm winds, the enemy forces approach.

vv. 14-16 God warns them through His last prophets to repent and cleanse themselves from wickedness that they may be saved. The final voice is from Joseph in the combined tribes of Dan/Ephraim that is the Joseph of Revelation chapter 7. This voice is the warning of the final Church of God of the Philadelphians (Rev. 3:7-13; F066) in the Last Days (see the paper The Pillars of Philadelphia (No. 283)). Note that the Septuagint says at verse 15: For a voice of one publishing from Dan shall come, and trouble out of mount Ephraim shall be heard of.  See also the text on John 1:19ff (F043) regarding this prophet being mistaken as coming at the time of John the Baptist. Note the voice of prophecy warns the nations that he is coming. The “He” here is the Messiah. The nations are the entire nations of the earth. In that time the watchers or besiegers come from a distant land and they shout against the cities of Judah. The term watchers [besiegers] is not the same word as the word used for the heavenly host. This action occurs at the return of the Messiah and heralds the battles of Armageddon (see the papers War of Hamon-Gog (No. 294) and also Advent of the Messiah Part I  (No. 210A) and Part II (No. 210B)). See also Wars of the End Part I: Wars of Amalek (No. 141C). The Wars are followed by the last two prophets Enoch and Elijah (Gen. 5:24; Mal 4:5) (1260 Days of the Witnesses (No. 141D)). Then Messiah will come (Armageddon and the Vials of the Wrath of God (No. 141E) and (No. 141E_2; 141E_2B). 

See also Fire From Heaven (No. 028).

The text of the LXX (below) does not substantially differ from the modern MT in this important area.

vv. 17-22 This text shows just how false and misguided the people of Israel are in their religious understanding and the worst is at Jerusalem with these people who say they are Jews but are not and who lie (Rev. 3:9) (F066). They have no understanding and have corrupted the Calendar of Judaism through their traditions and postponements and they have corrupted the Churches of God with this abomination of Hillel; and their priests and rabbis will die because of it. Less than 9% of them are actual Jews (No. 212E). By the coming of the Messiah there will not be one rabbi or priest or minister left alive that is keeping Hillel and the postponements and traditions. This is not a simple passage of troops from Dan (8:16) through mount Ephraim in Central Palestine and Benjamin (6:1). These are the identities of the last days appointed and set aside by God in this and other texts of Scripture, as was Jeremiah himself (1:5) (see also Rev. 11:3ff F066iii).


vv. 23-31 War will ensue and will continue on to utter devastation so that the earth will again become tohu and bohu and the heavens have no light (v. 23).   This was as we saw in Joel. It is as if struck by a nuclear bomb which will occur in the last days to kill a third of mankind (Rev. 9:18 F066iii). It was this text that forced the false prophetess Ellen G. White to declare the desolate earth theory and the heavenly investigative judgment and to declare Satan being confined to a desolate earth, which is utter heresy. See the papers The Millennium and the Rapture (No. 095); The Pre-Advent Judgment (No. 176) and False Prophecy (No. 269). It is the text that says I looked and there was no man that appears to have misled those who wished to see what they wanted to be so. It also says that all the birds of the air had fled. The fruitful land was a desert and all the cities were laid in ruins before the fierce anger of the Lord (see also 7:16; 15:1-4). Like a rejected harlot the daughter of Zion faces her end (3:2-3). However the Lord made a declaration in verse 27 which makes it all clear that the Lord will not make a full end. The people will be among the rocks and not in the cities and the Babylonian whore will be entirely destroyed (#299B F066iv and v).

4:29-31 It is at this time that the daughter of Zion shall give birth and the millennial system will come into operation. The murderers of Israel are not just the killers of men but of women and the women who abort their young and those who sell bodies for spare parts. They will be judged and put to the sword along with their false priests.”


Gideon’s Force and the Last Days (No. 022)

The sequence entails, firstly, the fall of the churches (cf. Measuring the Temple (No. 137)) and secondly, the fall of the nation. A major example of what is to take place is found in the story of Gideon (see also No. 141F).


English Translation of the Greek Septuagint Bible

Brenton, Sir Lancelot C. L... (1851)


Chapter 4 4:1 If Israel will return to me, saith the Lord, he shall return: and if he will remove his abominations out of his mouth, and fear before me, and swear, 2 The Lord lives, with truth, in judgment and righteousness, then shall nations bless by him, and by him they shall praise God in Jerusalem. 3 For thus saith the Lord to the men of Juda, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, Break up fresh ground for yourselves, and sow not among thorns. 4 Circumcise yourselves to your God, and circumcise your hardness of heart, ye men of Juda, and inhabitants of Jerusalem: lest my wrath go forth as fire, and burn, and there be none to quench it, because of the evil of your devices. 5 Declare ye in Juda, and let it be heard in Jerusalem: say ye, Sound the trumpet in the land; cry ye aloud: say ye, Gather yourselves together, and let us enter into the fortified cities. 6 Gather up your wares and flee to Sion: hasten, stay not: for I will bring evils from the north, an great destruction. 7 The lion is gone up from his lair, he has roused himself to the destruction of the nations, and has gone forth out of his place, to make the land desolate; and the cities shall be destroyed, so as to be without inhabitant. 8 For these things gird yourselves with sackclothes, and lament, and howl: for the anger of the Lord is not turned away from you. 9 And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord, that the heart of the king shall perish, and the heart of the princes; and the priests shall be amazed, and the prophets shall wonder. 10 And I said, O sovereign Lord, verily thou hast deceived this people and Jerusalem, saying, There shall be peace; whereas behold, the sword has reached even to their soul. 11 At that time they shall say to this people and to Jerusalem, There is a spirit of error in the wilderness: the way of the daughter of my people is not to purity, nor to holiness. 12 But a spirit of full vengeance shall come upon me; and now I declare my judgments against them. 13 Behold, he shall come up as a cloud, and his chariots as a tempest: his horses are swifter than eagles. Woe unto us! for we are in misery. 14 Cleanse thine heart from wickedness, O Jerusalem, that thou mayest be saved: how long will thy grievous thoughts be within thee? 15 For a voice of one publishing from Dan shall come, and trouble out of mount Ephraim shall be heard of. 16 Remind ye the nations; behold, they are come: proclaim it in Jerusalem, that bands are approaching from a land afar off, and have uttered their voice against the cities of Juda. 17 As keepers of a field, they have surrounded her; because thou, saith the Lord, has neglected me. 18 Thy ways and thy devices have brought these things upon thee; this is thy wickedness, for it is bitter, for it has reached to thy heart. 19 I am pained in my bowels, my bowels, and the sensitive powers of my heart; my soul is in great commotion, my heart is torn: I will not be silent, for my soul has heard the sound of a trumpet, the cry of war, and of distress: it calls on destruction; 20 for all the land is distressed: suddenly my tabernacle is distressed, my curtains have been rent asunder. 21 How long shall I see fugitives, and hear the sound of the trumpet? 22 For the princes of my people have not known me, they are foolish and unwise children: they are wise to do evil, but how to do good they have not known. 23 I looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was not; and to the sky, and there was no light in it. 24 I beheld the mountains, and they trembled, and I saw all the hills in commotion. 25 I looked, and behold, there was no man, and all the birds of the sky were scared. 26 I saw, and, behold, Carmel was desert, and all the cities were burnt with fire at the presence of the Lord, and at the presence of his fierce anger they were utterly destroyed. 27 Thus saith the Lord, The whole land shall be desolate; but I will not make a full end. 28 For these things let the earth mourn, and let the sky be dark above: for I have spoken, and I will not repent; I have purposed, and I will not turn back from it. 29 The whole land has recoiled from the noise of the horseman and the bent bow; they have gone into the caves, and have hidden themselves in the groves, and have gone up upon the rocks: every city was abandoned, no man dwelt in them. 30 And what wilt thou do? Though thou clothe thyself with scarlet, and adorn thyself with golden ornaments; though thou adorn thine eyes with stibium, thy beauty will be in vain: thy lovers have rejected thee, they seek thy life. 31 For I have heard thy groaning as the voice of a woman in travail, as of her that brings forth her first child; the voice of the daughter of Zion shall fail through weakness, and she shall lose the strength of her hands, saying, Woe is me! for my soul faints because of the slain.


Bullinger’s Notes on Chapters 1-4 (for KJV)


Chapter 1

Verse 1

words: or, prophecies (verses: Jeremiah 1:4 , Jeremiah 1:9 , Jeremiah 1:1 , Jeremiah 2:4 , &c.) Compare Jeremiah 36:1 , Jeremiah 36:2 ; but better "words", as the historic portions are also Jehovah's words. Compare Amos 1:1 . Jeremiah. Hebrew. y'irm e yahu = whom Jehovah raises up, or launches forth.

Hilkiah. Not the high priest of that name, who was of the line of Eleazar (1 Chronicles 6:4 , 1 Chronicles 6:13 ); whereas Anathoth belonged to that of Ithamar (1 Chronicles 24:3 , 1 Chronicles 24:6 ). Compare 2 Chronicles 34:0 .

of the priests. Beside Jeremiah, Nathan (1 Kings 4:6 ), Ezekiel (Jeremiah 1:3 ), and probably Zechariah (Jeremiah 1:1 ) were of priestly origin.

Anathoth. Now 'Anata, three miles north-east of Jerusalem. Jeremiah was persecuted there before he prophesied in Jerusalem (Jeremiah 11:21 ; Jeremiah 12:6 ). This prepared him for later conflicts (Compare Jeremiah 12:5 , Jeremiah 12:6 ).


Verse 2

the word of the LORD came. It is remarkable that, in the four longer prophets, this formula is almost entirely confined to the two who were priests (Jeremiah and Ezekiel). See App-82 . Compare Genesis 15:1 . 1Sa 9:27 ; 1 Samuel 15:10 . 2 Samuel 7:4 ; 2Sa 24:11 . 1 Kings 12:22 . 1 Chronicles 17:3 ; 1Ch 22:8 . 2 Chronicles 11:2 ; 2 Chronicles 12:7 . Ezekiel 1:3 ; Ezekiel 14:12 .Hosea 1:1 .Joel 1:1 , &c.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

Josiah. Three kings named here and in Jeremiah 1:3 . Two others not named here (Jehoahaz and Jehoiachin), who reigned only three months each (2 Kings 23:31 ; 2 Kings 24:8 ).

thirteenth year. A year after Josiah began his reformation (2 Chronicles 34:3 ). (618 B.C. See App-50 .) Sixty-six years after Isaiah ended. For the chronology of Jeremiah, see App-77 and App-83 . From 2 Chronicles 34:22 . Jeremiah was probably still at Anathoth.


Verse 3

It came also in the days. See note on Genesis 14:1 .

the fifth month. The month that Jerusalem was destroyed (Jeremiah 52:12 ; 2 Kings 25:3 , 2 Kings 25:8 ). After that, Jeremiah continued in the Land (Jeremiah 40:1 ; Jeremiah 42:7 ); and, later, in Egypt (chs Jer 43:44 ).


Verse 4

Then: i.e. in the thirteenth year of Josiah.

word. Singular, because referring to this special prophecy.


Verse 5

I knew. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for choosing. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 33:12 , Exodus 33:17 ). App-92 .

sanctified thee = set thee apart, or, hallowed thee. See note on Exodus 3:5 , and compare John Baptist (Luke 1:15-17 ); Paul (Galatians 1:15 , Galatians 1:16 ); Samson (Judges 13:3 ).

the nations. This distinguishes Jeremiah from some of the other prophets, and shows that the legend of his martyrdom is only legend.


Verse 6

Lord GOD. Hebrew Adonai Jehovah. See App-4 .

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

I cannot speak, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 4:10 ). App-92 . This is true of all God's messengers.

a child. Hebrew. na'ar, a youth. Probably about Josiah's age; for he began to reign at 8 years of age, and 8+13 would make him 21. But this refers more to inefficiency than to age.


Verse 7

whatsoever I command, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 22:20 ). App-92 .


Verse 8

Be not afraid, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 3:12 ; Deuteronomy 31:6 ). App-92 . Compare Ezekiel (Ezekiel 2:6 ); Paul (Acts 26:17 ).

saith the LORD = [is] Jehovah's oracle.


Verse 9

hand . . . touched. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia . Compare Isaiah (Isaiah 6:6 , Isaiah 6:7 ); Ezekiel (Ezekiel 2:8 , Ezekiel 2:9 ); Daniel (Can. Jeremiah 10:16 ).

I have put My words, &c. This is inspiration. See Deuteronomy 18:18 . Compare Acts 1:16 . David's "mouth", but not David's "words".


Verse 10

set thee = not only appointed, but installed.

to root out = to declare that nations should be rooted out, &c. Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject). Note also the Figure of speech Polyonymia, for emphasis.

and to pull down, and to destroy, and to throw down, &c. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton , and see note above.

build, and to plant = to declare that others (Israel and Judah) should be restored. Compare Ezekiel 17:22-24 . A prophecy still future.


Verse 11

Jeremiah's Second Prophecy (see Book comments for Jeremiah).

Moreover = And. Another commission introducing two visions.

a rod = a staff for striking. Hebrew. makkel, as in Jeremiah 48:17 and Genesis 30:37-41 .

a rod of an almond tree. Denotes an almond tree staff, corresponding with a vigilant watchman.

an almond tree. Hebrew. shaked = a watcher, or an early waker, because it is the first of the trees to wake from its winter sleep, and is thus what the cock is among birds.


Verse 12

I will hasten . . . it = I am watching. Forming the Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ), "an almond tree ( shaked) . . . I am watching ( shoked) ", thus emphasizing the certainty.


Verse 13

Jeremiah's Third Prophecy (see Book comments for Jeremiah).

second time. In order to complete the sense by explaining that it was the fulfilment of the word of judgment that was to be watched over.

a seething pot = a boiling cauldron. Hebrew a pot blown upon: i.e. brought to boiling by blowing the fire.

toward the north = from the north: i.e. turned towards the prophet, who saw it from the south. The enemy of which it spoke, though situated on the east, would come round the desert and advance from the north, through Dan, the usual route from Assyria. See Jeremiah 1:14 .


Verse 14

an evil = the calamity. Hebrew. ra'a'. App-44 . See note on Isaiah 45:7 .


Verse 15

all. Frequently put (as here) by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Whole), App-6 , for the principal or greater part.

set, &c. Where the kings of Judah had sat to judge and rule. Fulfilled in Jeremiah 39:3 , for here the setting is hostile.


Verse 16

them: i.e. the people of Judah.

wickedness. Hebrew. ra'a'. App-44 .

forsaken Me. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 28:20 ). App-92 .

burned incense. Hebrew. katar. See App-43 . This includes the burnt offering and parts of the gift offering.

works. Some codices, with one early printed edition, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "work" (singular)


Verse 17

gird up, &c. See note on 1 Kings 18:46 .

be not dismayed. Note the Figure of speech Paronomasia ( App-6 ), in the alternate words and lines of C (p. 1016): C g | 17-. Be not dismayed ( tehath ). h | -17-. At their faces ( mippeneyhem ). g | -17-. Lest I confound thee ( ahiteka ). h | -17. Before them ( liphneyhem ). This may be Englished: "Be not abashed. . Lest I abash thee".


Verse 18

made thee = give thee [as].

brasen walls. Some codices, with two early printed editions (one in margin), Targum, Aramaean, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "a wall of bronze" (singular)

against. Note the Figure of speech Anaphora , by which "against" is repeated seven times, in order to emphasize the fact that as man's thoughts and ways are the opposite of Jehovah's (Isaiah 55:8 ), it is impossible for a prophet who is Jehovah's spokesman to be other than "against" man. See App-49 .

the kings of Judah. See Jeremiah 36:0 .

the princes. See Jeremiah 37:0 and Jeremiah 38:0 .

the priests. See Jeremiah 20:0 and Jeremiah 26:0 .

the People. See Jeremiah 34:19 ; Jeremiah 37:2 ; Jeremiah 44:21 ; Jeremiah 52:6 .


Chapter 2

Verse 1

Moreover. Jeremiah 2:0 is the first chapter of the roll which was re-written after being burned (Jeremiah 36:0 ), while Jeremiah 11:0 is the first of the "many like words" (Jeremiah 36:32 ) added afterwards.

word. See note on Jeremiah 1:1 , Jeremiah 1:4

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .


Verse 2

Go and cry. Jeremiah continued to retain his connection with Anathoth (Jeremiah 11:21 ; Jeremiah 29:27 ; Jeremiah 32:7 ; Jeremiah 37:12 ), though his mission was to Jerusalem.

saith the LORD. See note on Jeremiah 1:8 .

I remember thee. The expression is used in good part Psalms 98:3 ; Psalms 106:45 ; Psalms 132:1 .Nehemiah 5:19 ; Nehemiah 13:14 , Nehemiah 13:22 , Nehemiah 13:31 ; but in evil part Psalms 79:8 ; Psalms 137:7 . Nehemiah 6:14 ; Nehemiah 13:29 . Probably both senses here: the good on Jehovah's part (Jeremiah 2:3 .Hosea 11:1 ; Hosea 2:19 , Hosea 2:20 . Amos 2:10 ); and the evil on Israel's part, for even in the wilderness Israel was unfaithful (Amos 5:25 , Amos 5:26 . Acts 7:39-43 ).

youth. Compare Ezekiel 16:8 .

when. Compare Jeremiah 2:6 . Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 2:7 ; Deuteronomy 8:2 , Deuteronomy 8:15 , Deuteronomy 8:16 ). Compare Nehemiah 9:12-21 .Isaiah 63:7-14 .


Verse 3

holiness unto the LORD. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 19:6 ).

the firstfruits, &c, which were consecrated. Ref to Pentateuch (Exodus 23:19 . Deuteronomy 18:4 ; Deuteronomy 26:10 ). App-92 .

devour = devoured.

offend = be held guilty. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 4:13 , Leviticus 4:22 , Leviticus 4:27 ; Leviticus 5:2 , Leviticus 5:3 , Leviticus 5:4 , Leviticus 5:5 , Leviticus 5:17 , Leviticus 5:19 ; Leviticus 6:4 .Numbers 5:6 , Numbers 5:7 ). App-92 .

evil = calamity. Hebrew. ra'a', App-44 . See note on Isaiah 45:7 .


Verse 4

house of Jacob. Occurs only here, and Jeremiah 5:20 , where it is "in the house of Jacob". The only other passage is Amos 3:13 .

the house of Israel. The Massorah ( App-30 ), records that this expression occurs twenty times in Jeremiah (here; Jeremiah 2:26 ; Jeremiah 3:18 , Jeremiah 3:20 ; Jeremiah 5:11 , Jeremiah 5:15 ; Jeremiah 9:26 ; Jeremiah 10:1 ; Jeremiah 11:10 , Jeremiah 11:17 ; Jeremiah 13:11 ; Jeremiah 18:6 , Jeremiah 18:6 ; Jeremiah 23:8 ; Jeremiah 31:27 , Jeremiah 31:31 , Jeremiah 31:33 ; Jeremiah 33:14 , Jeremiah 33:17 ; Jeremiah 48:13 ).


Verse 5

What iniquity. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:4 ). App-92 .

iniquity. Hebrew. 'aval. App-44 .

fathers. Not merely recently, but of old (Jeremiah 2:7 . Judges 2:10 , &c).

vanity = the vanity. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Ad-junct), for vain things: i.e. idols. Compare Jeremiah 10:3-10 , Jeremiah 10:15 ; Jeremiah 14:22 ; Jeremiah 16:19 , Jeremiah 16:20 . Deuteronomy 32:21 . Act 14:15 . 1 Corinthians 8:4 .

become vain? Compare 2 Kings 17:15 . Idolaters always become like the gods they worship. Compare Psalms 115:8 ; Psalms 135:18 .


Verse 6

brought us up. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 13:27 ; Numbers 14:7 , Numbers 14:8 . Deuteronomy 6:10 , Deuteronomy 6:11 , Deuteronomy 6:18 ).

led us. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 8:14-16 ; Deuteronomy 32:10 ).

shadow of death = deep darkness.


Verse 7

a plentiful country = a country of garden land. Hebrew the land of a Carmel. Compare Isaiah 33:9 ; Isaiah 35:2 .


Verse 8

they that handle the law. The law therefore well known, and the priests known as the custodians of it. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 10:11 .Deuteronomy 17:11 ; Deuteronomy 33:10 ).

pastors = shepherds. Used of kings and other leaders of the People. Compare Jeremiah 17:16 ; Jeremiah 23:1-8 .

transgressed = revolted. Hebrew. pasha' . App-44 .

do not profit. Figure of speech Tapeinosis , for emphasis = lead to ruin.


Verse 9

plead = argue, contend.

children's children = sons' sons.


Verse 10

isles = coastlands, or maritime countries.

Chittim. See note on Numbers 24:24 .

Kedar. In Arabia. Two names used to represent west and east outlanders.


Verse 11

their glory = His glory. This is one of the emendations of the Sopherim ( App-33 ), by which the Hebrew kebodi ("My glory") was changed to kebodo ("His glory"), out of a mistaken idea of reverence.


Verse 12

Be astonished. Figure of speech Apostrophe .

very desolate = dried up, or, devoid of clouds and vapours.


Verse 13

fountain = a well dug out, but having living water.

cisterns = a hewn cistern, holding only what it receives.

can hold no water = cannot hold the waters.


Verse 14

servant? . . . slave? They were treated as such by Assyria, and afterward by Egypt.

spoiled = become a spoil.


Verse 16

Noph = Memphis, the capital of Lower Egypt, south of Cairo. Compare Jeremiah 41:1 .Isaiah 19:13 .

Tahapanes. The Greek Daphnae, on the Pelusiac branch of the Nile. Compare Jeremiah 43:7 , Jeremiah 43:11 .


Verse 17

He led thee. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:12 ).


Verse 18

the way of Egypt. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 17:16 ).

Sihor: i.e. the Nile.

the river: i.e. the Euphrates.


Verse 19

is not in thee = should not have pertained to thee.


Verse 20

I will not transgress. Reference to Pentateuch (Exodus 19:8 ).

transgress. Hebrew. 'abar. A Homonym. Here = serve; else where = transgress. Not the same word as in verses: Jer 8:29 .

high hill . . . green tree. The places where the Asherah was worshipped. App-42 .


Verse 21

noble vine = choice, or precious vine.

strange = foreign.


Verse 22

nitre: i.e. a mineral alkali. In Palestine a compound of soap.

sope = soap.

marked = graven.


Verse 23

I have not gone. Some codices, with four early printed editions (one in margin), Aramaean, Septuagint, and Syriac, read, "and I have not gone", &c.

Baalim = lords. Used here for false gods generally, including Moloch. Compare Jeremiah 7:31 ; Jeremiah 19:5 ; where Moloch is called Baal.

traversing = entangling.


Verse 24

wind. Hebrew. ruach. App-9 .

her pleasure = her soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .


Verse 26

their kings. Showing that Judah was still in the Land, but in Jehoiakim's reign.

their princes. Some codices, with Septuagint and Syriac, read "and their princes", perfecting the Figure of speech Polysyndeton , emphasizing all classes.


Verse 27

stone. Here feminine, to agree with mother.


Verse 28

where . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6 . Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 32:37 , Deuteronomy 32:38 ). App-92 .

for, &c. Figure of speech Epitrope.

Judah. Compare Jeremiah 11:13 .


Verse 30

devoured your prophets. See 1 Kings 18:4 , 1 Kings 18:13 ; 2Ki 21:16 . 2 Chronicles 24:21 . Compare Matthew 23:37 . Luke 11:47 . Acts 7:51 , Acts 7:52 .


Verse 31

generation. Once a chosen generation (Psalms 22:30 ; Psalms 24:6 ; Psalms 112:2 .Isaiah 53:8Isaiah 53:8 ); now a perverse generation (Jeremiah 7:29 . Deuteronomy 32:5 .Psalms 78:8Psalms 78:8 ). Compare Matthew 3:7 ; Matthew 11:16 ; Matthew 12:34 , Matthew 12:39 , Matthew 12:41-45 ; Matthew 16:4 ; Matthew 17:17 .

a land of darkness: or, Is the land the darkness of Jah?


Verse 33

love. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the object loved. Compare Jeremiah 2:23 .

ones. Here "wicked" is Feminine = wicked women.


Verse 34

blood. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of the Subject), for the guilt of bloodshedding.

souls . Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .

poor = helpless. Hebrew. 'ebyon. See note on Proverbs 6:11 .

it: i.e. the guilt (of bloodshedding) on the "poor innocents".

these: i.e. these [thy skirts] which evidence it. Note the Figure of speech Ellipsis , in this verse. Compare Jeremiah 22:17 .


Verse 35

plead = enter into judgment with.

sinned. Hebrew. chata . App-44 .


Verse 36

as = according as.


Verse 37

thine hands upon thine head. The Eastern custom of expressing grief. Compare 2 Samuel 13:19 .


Chapter 3

Verse 1

They say = [It is a common] saying. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 24:1-4 ).

yet return again to Me = yet [thinkest thou to] return, &c. It was contrary to the law of Deuteronomy 24:1-4 . It will be the new Israel of Matthew 21:43 of a yet future day. God never mends what man has marred. This is the lesson of the potter's house. See Jeremiah 18:1-4 .

to Me. See Jeremiah 3:7 ; Jeremiah 4:1 .


Verse 3

showers . . . withholden. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:19 . Deuteronomy 11:17 ; Deuteronomy 28:23 ). App-92 .

forehead. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for impudence.


Verse 4

Guide = Friend.


Verse 5

reserve. Hebrew. natar. Occurs in Jer. only here and in Jeremiah 3:12 ("keep").

His anger. Figure of speech Ellipsis (Absolute). App-6 .

evil things = the evil things. Hebrew. ra'a', as in Jeremiah 3:2 .

as thou couldest: or, hast had thy way.


Verse 6

Jeremiah 3:6-25 ; Jeremiah 4:1-4 is Jeremiah's Fifth prophecy. (see Book comments for Jeremiah).

in the days of Josiah. This must be noted to understand the context.

Israel. Here refers to the Northern Kingdom. In Jeremiah it usually refers to the whole nation.

mountain . . . tree. Compare Jeremiah 2:20 , and Hosea 4:13 .

played the harlot. The whole of this refers to idolatry, chiefly because of the uncleanness connected with the phallic worship of the Canaanitish nations.


Verse 7

Turn thou unto Me: or, "Unto Me she will return".


Verse 8

And I saw. In transcribing from the ancient characters, Aleph (= a) was perhaps taken for Tau (= t), the two letters differing only in one minute stroke (=) and (=). This shows that the primitive reading was = "Though she saw". The Vulg, has preserved the ancient reading, which the Revised Version has put in the margin.

given her a bill, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 24:1 ). Compare Isaiah 50:1 .Mark 10:4 .


Verse 9

stones . . . stocks. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), App-6 , for the idols made from them.


Verse 10

feignedly = in falsehood. The reformation was Josiah's. The People's heart was not changed.


Verse 11

justified herself. Compare Ezekiel 16:51 , Ezekiel 16:52 .


Verse 12

toward the north = toward the Northern Kingdom of Israel.

cause Mine anger to fall upon you. Hebrew cause My face, or countenance, to fall. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), for the anger manifested by it. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 4:5 , Genesis 4:6 ).

merciful = gracious, favourable.

keep. See note on "reserve", Jeremiah 3:5 .


Verse 13

Only acknowledge, &c. This from the first was, and still is, the one condition of national blessing for Israel. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:40 , Leviticus 26:42 ).

transgressed = rebelled.

scattered thy ways = gone hither and thither.

strangers = foreigners.

every green tree. Referring to the worship of the Asherah ( App-42 ).


Verse 14

Turn = Return, as in verses: Jeremiah 3:12 , Jeremiah 3:22 .

married = am become your husband. This will be the result of the Restoration here promised.

family. Probably a family, or group of cities.


Verse 15

pastors. Literally shepherds; but used in Jeremiah of kings, priests, and prophets, who were the guides of the people. See Jeremiah 2:8 ; Jeremiah 3:15 ; Jeremiah 10:21 ; Jeremiah 23:1 , Jeremiah 23:2 , Jeremiah 23:4 ; Jeremiah 25:34 ; Jer 35:36 .


Verse 16

in those days: i.e. the days of the Restoration spoken of in verses: Jeremiah 3:14 , Jeremiah 3:15 . Compare Jeremiah 31:38-40 ; Jeremiah 33:13 .

they: i.e. those who return.

shall say no more, 'The ark', &c. The ark was still in the land in the days of this prophecy (2 Chronicles 35:3 ); but it was to disappear with the broken covenant, of which it was the symbol.

The ark of the covenant of the LORD. Reference to Pentateuch, (see notes on Exodus 25:22 ). Compare note on 1 Chronicles 13:3 ).

visit it. This is conclusive of the fact that it was burnt together with the Temple (as it is not included in the excepted things, in 2 Kings 25:9 , 2 Kings 25:13-15 ), notwithstanding the Jewish tradition recorded in 2 Macc. 2:4-8, and the impossible stories of its being taken over to North Africa, Constantinople, or Ireland.

neither shall that be done, &c. = neither shall it be made any more. It disappeared together with the covenant, of which it was the symbol (Jeremiah 8:19 ; Jeremiah 12:7 . Psalms 132:13 , Psalms 132:14 ). The reason follows in Jeremiah 3:17 . Jehovah's throne will be substituted for it: the reality will take the place of the symbol. Jehovah Himself will take the place of the Shekinah.


Verse 17

At that time. Referring to the future Restoration.

call Jerusalem, &c. Compare Psalms 87:2-7 . Isaiah 60:1 ; Isaiah 65:18 ; Isaiah 66:7-13 , Isaiah 66:20 .

throne. Compare Jeremiah 14:21 . 1 Samuel 2:8 . Psalms 47:8 with Matthew 25:31 and Zephaniah 3:8 .

all the nations. This shows that the prophecy refers to the yet future Restoration. Compare Jeremiah 1:5 , Jeremiah 1:10 .

the name, &c. See note on Psalms 20:1 .

imagination = stubbornness. The word is used eight times by Jeremiah, but is found nowhere else outside the Pentateuch, except in Psalms 81:12 . Compare Jeremiah 7:24 . The reference to Pent, is in Deuteronomy 29:19 .


Verse 18

In those days. Still referring to the future Restoration.

the house of Judah. This expression occurs eleven times in this book: here; Jeremiah 5:11 ; Jeremiah 11:10 , Jeremiah 11:17 ; Jeremiah 12:14 ; Jeremiah 13:11 ; Jeremiah 22:6 ; Jeremiah 31:27 , Jeremiah 31:31 ; Jeremiah 33:14 ; Jeremiah 36:3 .

walk with = go unto.

the house of Israel. See note on Jeremiah 2:4 .

and they shall = that they may.

come = enter.

together: or, at the same time.


Verse 19

children = sons.

a pleasant land. Hebrew a land of desire: i.e. to be desired.


Verse 20

husband = guide, or friend, as in Jeremiah 3:4 .


Verse 21

the high places = the places where they had sinned. Compare Jeremiah 3:2 .

for = because.


Verse 22

Behold. Figure of speech Asterismos , to mark the confession that will be made "in those days".


Verse 23

Truly = Thus continuing her confession.

in vain, &c. = as certainly as the hills [have proved] false, and the noisy throng on the mountains fan empty sound], so truly is the salvation of Israel with our God. The "hills" and "mountains" are put by the Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), for the idolatry practiced on them. Compare Ezekiel 18:6 , Ezekiel 18:11 , Ezekiel 18:15 .


Verse 24

shame = the shameful thing, "shame" being put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), for the Asherah which put them to shame (Jeremiah 3:25 ). See App-42 .

labour. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for all that had been produced by labour.

their sons. Some codices, with two early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, and Syriac, read "and their", thus completing the Figure of speech Polysyndeton, to emphasize the completeness of the Restoration.


Chapter 4

Verse 1

return. Note the Figure of speech Cycloides. App-6 .

Israel. Now referring to the northern kingdom.

saith the LORD = [is] Jehovah's oracle.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4 .

then shalt thou not remove = and stray not [from Jehovah]. Compare Jeremiah 2:22-26 ; Jeremiah 3:2 .


Verse 2

thou shalt swear. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 10:20 ).

in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness. Figure of speech Hendiatris ( App-6 ) = truly, yea, justly and righteously, the three referring to the one thing, "shalt swear".


Verse 3

and Jerusalem. Some codices, with Aramaean, Septuagint, and Syriac, read "and the inhabitants of Jerusalem", as in Jeremiah 4:4 .


Verse 4

Circumcise. Reference to Pentateuch (Deuteronomy 10:16 ; Deuteronomy 30:6 ). Spiritual circumcision in the O.T. is confined to these three passages.


Verse 5

Declare . . . publish . . . say. Compare Jeremiah 46:14 ; Jeremiah 50:2 .

Judah. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of Part), for Judah and Benjamin.

Blow ye. Hebrew text reads, "And blow ye": but Hebrew margin, and some codices, with three early printed editions, Aramaean, Septuagint, and Syriac, read without the "And". This is followed by Authorized Version and Revised Version.


Verse 6

Set. . . retire . . . stay. All plural. standard.

evil = calamity. Hebrew. ra'a'. App-44 .

destruction: or, breaking up.


Verse 7

The lion = A lion. Figure of speech Hypocatastasis , not Simile or Metaphor. Put thus for the king of Babylon. Contrast Jeremiah 49:19 . See note there.

Gentiles = nations.


Verse 9

heart. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), for courage.

king . . . princes . . . priests . . . prophets. All had become false and corrupt since Josiah's day.


Verse 10

greatly deceived. Hebrew idiom for declaring that they would be deceived: i.e. by the false prophets who prophesied peace.

soul. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13 .


Verse 11

wind. Hebrew. ruach . App-9 .


Verse 12

them . A special various reading called "Sevir" ( App-34 ) reads "her".


Verse 15

from Dan . . . Ephraim. The enemy would enter the Land from the north, as he afterward did.

mount = hill country of.


Verse 19

My bowels. Figure of speech Epizeuxis ( App-6 ), for emphasis. Note the Figure of speech Hypotyposis, verses: 19-31. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Effect), for the emotions which produce and affect their movement.

bowels . . . very heart . . . heart. Note the Figure of speech Anabasis. App-6 . See note below.

my very heart = the walls of my heart.

thou hast. Hebrew text reads "I have"; but margin and some codices, with three early printed editions, and Revised Version margin, read "thou hast", as in Authorized Version.


Verse 20

curtains. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for tents, in which a large proportion of the people lived (2 Samuel 18:17 . 1 Kings 8:66 ). Compare Jeremiah 10:20 .


Verse 22

known = acknowledged.

sottish = stupid. Probably from Celtic. Breton sot, or sod = stupid.

children = sons.


Verse 23

I beheld. Note the Figure of speech Anaphora ( App-6 ), commencing this and the three following verses.

lo. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

without form, and void. Hebrew. tohu va-bohu. Reference to Pentateuch (Genesis 1:2 ). Occurs only here. App-92 . In Isaiah 34:11 , the two words are in another connection. Compare also Isaiah 45:18 .

light = lights (pl). Compare Genesis 1:14 .


Verse 26

at = because of.

and by. Some cod ices, with five early printed editions, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "and because of".


Verse 27

yet will I not make a full end. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 26:44 ). App-92 . Compare Jeremiah 5:10 , Jeremiah 5:18 .


Verse 28

I have purposed it, and, &c. Reference to Pentateuch (Numbers 23:19 ). App-92 .


Verse 29

city. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Subject), for its inhabitants.

every = all, as in preceding clause.


Verse 30

thou. Figure of speech Prosopopoeia , Put for idolatrous Israel. An adulterous woman.

rentest = enlargest (with paint).

face = eyes.

life = soul. Hebrew. nephesh.